Volume 645, January 2021
|Number of page(s)||25|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||21 December 2020|
Determining the true mass of radial-velocity exoplanets with Gaia
Nine planet candidates in the brown dwarf or stellar regime and 27 confirmed planets★
Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR 7095,
98 bis bd Arago,
2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
3 Observatoire de Haute-Provence, CNRS, Université d’Aix-Marseille, 04870 Saint-Michel-l’Observatoire, France
4 Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, 37504-364, Itajubá - MG, Brazil
Accepted: 24 September 2020
Mass is one of the most important parameters for determining the true nature of an astronomical object. Yet, many published exoplanets lack a measurement of their true mass, in particular those detected as a result of radial-velocity (RV) variations of their host star. For those examples, only the minimum mass, or m sin i, is known, owing to the insensitivity of RVs to the inclination of the detected orbit compared to the plane of the sky. The mass that is given in databases is generally that of an assumed edge-on system (~90°), but many other inclinations are possible, even extreme values closer to 0° (face-on). In such a case, the mass of the published object could be strongly underestimated by up to two orders of magnitude. In the present study, we use GASTON, a recently developed tool taking advantage of the voluminous Gaia astrometric database to constrain the inclination and true mass of several hundreds of published exoplanet candidates. We find nine exoplanet candidates in the stellar or brown dwarf (BD) domain, among which six were never characterized. We show that 30 Ari B b, HD 141937 b, HD 148427 b, HD 6718 b, HIP 65891 b, and HD 16760 b have masses larger than 13.5 MJ at 3σ. We also confirm the planetary nature of 27 exoplanets, including HD 10180 c, d and g. Studying the orbital periods, eccentricities, and host-star metallicities in the BD domain, we found distributions with respect to true masses consistent with other publications. The distribution of orbital periods shows of a void of BD detections below ~100 d, while eccentricity and metallicity distributions agree with a transition between BDs similar to planets and BDs similar to stars in the range 40–50 MJ.
Key words: planets and satellites: fundamental parameters / brown dwarfs / binaries: general / astrometry
Full Tables 2, 3, 5, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A7
© F. Kiefer et al. 2020
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