Volume 645, January 2021
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||21 December 2020|
Effect of binary evolution on the inferred initial and final core masses of hydrogen-rich, Type II supernova progenitors
Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
2 Anton Pannenkoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 Center for Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
4 School of Astronomy, Space Science, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, PR China
5 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, PR China
6 Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
7 Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, New York, NY 10010, USA
8 Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Accepted: 8 May 2020
The majority of massive stars, which are the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), are found in close binary systems. In a previous work, we modeled the fraction of hydrogen-rich, Type II SN progenitors whose evolution is affected by mass exchange with their companion, finding this to be between ≈1/3 and 1/2 for most assumptions. Here we study in more depth the impact of this binary history of Type II SN progenitors on their final pre-SN core mass distribution, using population synthesis simulations. We find that binary star progenitors of Type II SNe typically end their life with a larger core mass than they would have had if they had lived in isolation because they gained mass or merged with a companion before their explosion. The combination of the diverse binary evolutionary paths typically leads to a marginally shallower final core mass distribution. In discussing our results in the context of the red supergiant problem, that is, the reported lack of detected high luminosity progenitors, we conclude that binary evolution does not seem to significantly affect the issue. This conclusion is quite robust against our variations in the assumptions of binary physics. We also predict that inferring the initial masses of Type II SN progenitors by “age-dating” their surrounding environment systematically yields lower masses compared to methods that probe the pre-SN core mass or luminosity. A robust discrepancy between the inferred initial masses of a SN progenitor from those different techniques could indicate an evolutionary history of binary mass accretion or merging.
Key words: supernovae: general / binaries: close / stars: evolution / stars: massive
© ESO 2020
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