Volume 645, January 2021
|Number of page(s)||38|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||24 December 2020|
Search for radio jets from massive young stellar objects
Association of radio jets with H2O and CH3OH masers
I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln,
Zülpicher Str. 77,
50937 Köln, Germany
2 Institute of Graduate Studies in Science, Program of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
3 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen, The Netherlands
4 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen, The Netherlands
5 Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
6 Institut de Radioastronomie Milimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France
7 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
Accepted: 27 November 2020
Context. Recent theoretical and observational studies debate the similarities of the formation process of high- (>8 M⊙) and low-mass stars. The formation of low-mass stars is directly associated with the presence of disks and jets. Theoretical models predict that stars with masses up to 140 M⊙ can be formed through disk-mediated accretion in disk-jet systems. According to this scenario, radio jets are expected to be common in high-mass star-forming regions.
Aims. We aim to increase the number of known radio jets in high-mass star-forming regions by searching for radio-jet candidates at radio continuum wavelengths.
Methods. We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to observe 18 high-mass star-forming regions in the C band (6 cm, ≈1′′.0 resolution) and K band (1.3 cm, ≈0′′.3 resolution). We searched for radio-jet candidates by studying the association of radio continuum sources with shock activity signs (e.g., molecular outflows, extended green objects, and maser emission). Our VLA observations also targeted the 22 GHz H2O and 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser lines.
Results. We have identified 146 radio continuum sources, 40 of which are located within the field of view of both images (C and K band maps). We derived the spectral index, which is consistent with thermal emission (between − 0.1 and + 2.0) for 73% of these sources. Based on the association with shock-activity signs, we identified 28 radio-jet candidates. Out of these, we identified 7 as the most probable radio jets. The radio luminosity of the radio-jet candidates is correlated with the bolometric luminosity and the outflow momentum rate. About 7–36% of the radio-jet candidates are associated with nonthermal emission. The radio-jet candidates associated with 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser emission are preferentially thermal winds and jets, while a considerable fraction of radio-jet candidates associated with H2O masers show nonthermal emission that is likely due to strong shocks.
Conclusions. About 60% of the radio continuum sources detected within the field of view of our VLA images are potential radio jets. The remaining sources could be compact H II regions in their early stages of development, or radio jets for which we currently lack further evidence of shock activity. Our sample of 18 regions is divided into 8 less evolved infrared-dark regions and 10 more evolved infrared-bright regions. We found that ≈71% of the identified radio-jet candidates are located in the more evolved regions. Similarly, 25% of the less evolved regions harbor one of the most probable radio jets, while up to 50% of the more evolved regions contain one of these radio-jet candidates. This suggests that the detection of radio jets in high-mass star-forming regions is more likely in slightly more evolved regions.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: massive / ISM: jets and outflows / radio continuum: ISM / HII regions
© ESO 2020
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.