Volume 644, December 2020
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||26 November 2020|
MIRACLES: atmospheric characterization of directly imaged planets and substellar companions at 4–5 μm
II. Constraints on the mass and radius of the enshrouded planet PDS 70 b★
Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ETH Zurich,
2 Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
3 Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
5 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Accepted: 31 August 2020
The circumstellar disk of PDS 70 hosts two forming planets, which are actively accreting gas from their environment. The physical and chemical characteristics of these planets remain ambiguous due to their unusual spectral appearance compared to more evolved objects. In this work, we report the first detection of PDS 70 b in the Brα and M′ filters with VLT/NACO, a tentative detection of PDS 70 c in Brα, and a reanalysis of archival NACO L′ and SPHERE H23 and K12 imaging data. The near side of the disk is also resolved with the Brα and M′ filters, indicating that scattered light is non-negligible at these wavelengths. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of PDS 70 b is well described by blackbody emission, for which we constrain the photospheric temperature and photospheric radius to Teff = 1193 ± 20 K and R = 3.0 ± 0.2 RJ. The relatively low bolometric luminosity, log(L∕L⊙) = −3.79 ± 0.02, in combination with the large radius, is not compatible with standard structure models of fully convective objects. With predictions from such models, and adopting a recent estimate of the accretion rate, we derive a planetary mass and radius in the range of Mp ≈ 0.5–1.5 MJ and Rp ≈ 1–2.5 RJ, independently of the age and post-formation entropy of the planet. The blackbody emission, large photospheric radius, and the discrepancy between the photospheric and planetary radius suggests that infrared observations probe an extended, dusty environment around the planet, which obscures the view on its molecular composition. Therefore, the SED is expected to trace the reprocessed radiation from the interior of the planet and/or partially from the accretion shock. The photospheric radius lies deep within the Hill sphere of the planet, which implies that PDS 70 b not only accretes gas but is also continuously replenished by dust. Finally, we derive a rough upper limit on the temperature and radius of potential excess emission from a circumplanetary disk, Teff ≲ 256 K and R ≲ 245 RJ, but we do find weak evidence that the current data favors a model with a single blackbody component.
Key words: stars: individual: PDS 70 / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: formation / techniques: high angular resolution
© ESO 2020
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