Volume 642, October 2020
The XXL Survey: third series
|Number of page(s)||25|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||13 October 2020|
The XXL Survey
XLII. Detection and characterisation of the galaxy population of distant galaxy clusters in the XXL-N/VIDEO field: A tale of variety⋆
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada
2 AIM, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3 INAF – IASF Milan, Via A. Corti 12, 20133 Milano, Italy
4 INAF – Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
5 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
6 Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
7 Université Aix-Marseille, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
8 Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 2DL, UK
9 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19001, Chile
10 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
11 Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Space Applications & Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Palaia Penteli, Greece
12 CEA Saclay, DRF/Irfu/DEDIP/LILAS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
13 Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
14 INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
Accepted: 3 September 2020
Context. Distant galaxy clusters provide an effective laboratory in which to study galaxy evolution in dense environments and at early cosmic times.
Aims. We aim to identify distant galaxy clusters as extended X-ray sources that are coincident with overdensities of characteristically bright galaxies.
Methods. We used optical and near-infrared data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam and VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) surveys to identify distant galaxy clusters as overdensities of bright, zphot ≥ 0.8 galaxies associated with extended X-ray sources detected in the ultimate XMM extragalactic survey (XXL).
Results. We identify a sample of 35 candidate clusters at 0.80 ≤ z ≤ 1.93 from an approximately 4.5 deg2 sky area. This sample includes 15 newly discovered candidate clusters, ten previously detected but unconfirmed clusters, and ten spectroscopically confirmed clusters. Although these clusters host galaxy populations that display a wide variety of quenching levels, they exhibit well-defined relations between quenching, cluster-centric distance, and galaxy luminosity. The brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) within our sample display colours that are consistent with a bimodal population composed of an old and red sub-sample together with a bluer, more diverse sub-sample.
Conclusions The relation between galaxy masses and quenching seem to already be in place at z ∼ 1, although there is no significant variation in the quenching fraction with the cluster-centric radius. The BCG bimodality might be explained by the presence of a younger stellar component in some BCGs, but additional data are needed to confirm this scenario.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: distances and redshifts / galaxies: evolution / galaxies: high-redshift / galaxies: photometry / X-rays: galaxies: clusters
© ESO 2020
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