Volume 642, October 2020
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||09 October 2020|
The LOFAR view of FR 0 radio galaxies
INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 93/2, 40129 Bologna, Italy
3 INAF – Istituto di Radio Astronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
4 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton, Hampshire, SO17 1BJ Southampton, UK
5 Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy
6 INAF – Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
7 ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute of Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
8 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
9 Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
10 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
11 SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
Accepted: 14 August 2020
We explore the low-frequency radio properties of the sources in the Fanaroff-Riley class 0 catalog (FR0CAT) as seen by the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) observations at 150 MHz. This sample includes 104 compact radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) associated with nearby (z < 0.05) massive early-type galaxies. Sixty-six FR0CAT sources are in the sky regions observed by LOFAR and all of them are detected, usually showing point-like structures with sizes of ≲3–6 kpc. However, 12 FR 0s present resolved emission of low surface brightness, which contributes between 5% and 40% of the total radio power at 150 MHz, usually with a jetted morphology extending between 15 and 50 kpc. No extended emission is detected around the other FR 0s, with a typical luminosity limit of ≲5 × 1022 W Hz−1 over an area of 100 kpc × 100 kpc. The spectral slopes of FR 0s between 150 MHz and 1.4 GHz span a broad range (−0.7 ≲ α ≲ 0.8) with a median value of ᾱ ∼ 0.1; 20% of them have a steep spectrum (α ≳ 0.5), which is an indication of the presence of substantial extended emission confined within the spatial resolution limit. The fraction of FR 0s showing evidence for the presence of jets, by including both spectral and morphological information, is at least ∼40%. This study confirms that FR 0s and FR Is can be interpreted as two extremes of a continuous population of jetted sources, with the FR 0s representing the low end in size and radio power.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / galaxies: elliptical and lenticular / cD
© ESO 2020
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