Volume 642, October 2020
The Solar Orbiter mission
|Number of page(s)||32|
|Section||Numerical methods and codes|
|Published online||30 September 2020|
Models and data analysis tools for the Solar Orbiter mission
IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, CNES, UPS, Toulouse, France
2 The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA
3 European Space Agency, ESAC, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
4 ADNET Systems, Inc., NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
5 INAF-Turin Astrophysical Observatory, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy
6 INAF-Catania Astrophysical Observatory, Via Santa Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
7 RAL Space, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX, UK
8 Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375, USA
9 University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch, Switzerland
10 European Space Agency, ESTEC, PO Box 299, 2200 Noordwijk, The Netherlands
11 Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
12 Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan -3- Av, Circulaire, 1180, Brussels, Belgium
13 Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO, USA
14 Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 2077, USA
15 INAF-Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
16 Instituto de Astrofísica (IAA-CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
17 UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
18 Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, 7260, Davos Dorf, Switzerland
19 Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, 91405 Orsay, France
20 Department of Physics and Astronomy – Section of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy
21 Département d’Astrophysique, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU Université Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France
22 Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, USA
23 Department of Physics & Astronomy, Georgia State University, 30303 Atlanta, GA, USA
24 RCAAM of the Academy of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
25 Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
26 School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, UK
27 Institute of Astronomy and National Astronomical Observatory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
28 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
29 Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
30 Universidad de Alcalá, Space Research Group, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
31 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
32 Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS), National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa & Vas. Pavlou St., 15236 Penteli, Greece
33 The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, USA
34 School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701, Republic of Korea
35 Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
36 Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Potsdam, Germany
37 Research Software Development Group, Information Service Division, University College London, London, UK
38 School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
39 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland
40 Predictive Sciences Inc., San Diego, CA, USA
41 Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK
42 Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau, France
43 Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
Accepted: 13 July 2019
Context. The Solar Orbiter spacecraft will be equipped with a wide range of remote-sensing (RS) and in situ (IS) instruments to record novel and unprecedented measurements of the solar atmosphere and the inner heliosphere. To take full advantage of these new datasets, tools and techniques must be developed to ease multi-instrument and multi-spacecraft studies. In particular the currently inaccessible low solar corona below two solar radii can only be observed remotely. Furthermore techniques must be used to retrieve coronal plasma properties in time and in three dimensional (3D) space. Solar Orbiter will run complex observation campaigns that provide interesting opportunities to maximise the likelihood of linking IS data to their source region near the Sun. Several RS instruments can be directed to specific targets situated on the solar disk just days before data acquisition. To compare IS and RS, data we must improve our understanding of how heliospheric probes magnetically connect to the solar disk.
Aims. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review how the current modelling of the Sun and its atmosphere can support Solar Orbiter science. We describe the results of a community-led effort by European Space Agency’s Modelling and Data Analysis Working Group (MADAWG) to develop different models, tools, and techniques deemed necessary to test different theories for the physical processes that may occur in the solar plasma. The focus here is on the large scales and little is described with regards to kinetic processes. To exploit future IS and RS data fully, many techniques have been adapted to model the evolving 3D solar magneto-plasma from the solar interior to the solar wind. A particular focus in the paper is placed on techniques that can estimate how Solar Orbiter will connect magnetically through the complex coronal magnetic fields to various photospheric and coronal features in support of spacecraft operations and future scientific studies.
Methods. Recent missions such as STEREO, provided great opportunities for RS, IS, and multi-spacecraft studies. We summarise the achievements and highlight the challenges faced during these investigations, many of which motivated the Solar Orbiter mission. We present the new tools and techniques developed by the MADAWG to support the science operations and the analysis of the data from the many instruments on Solar Orbiter.
Results. This article reviews current modelling and tool developments that ease the comparison of model results with RS and IS data made available by current and upcoming missions. It also describes the modelling strategy to support the science operations and subsequent exploitation of Solar Orbiter data in order to maximise the scientific output of the mission.
Conclusions. The on-going community effort presented in this paper has provided new models and tools necessary to support mission operations as well as the science exploitation of the Solar Orbiter data. The tools and techniques will no doubt evolve significantly as we refine our procedure and methodology during the first year of operations of this highly promising mission.
Key words: Sun: corona / Sun: atmosphere / solar wind / Sun: general / Sun: fundamental parameters / Sun: magnetic fields
© A. P. Rouillard et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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