Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||11 August 2020|
Modeling the quiet Sun cell and network emission with ALMA
Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
Accepted: 12 June 2020
Observations of the Sun at millimeter wavelengths with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) offer a unique opportunity to investigate the temperature structure of the solar chromosphere. In this article we expand our previous work on modeling the chromospheric temperature of the quiet Sun, by including measurements of the brightness temperature in the network and cell interiors, from high-resolution ALMA images at 3 mm (Band 3) and 1.26 mm (Band 6). We also examine the absolute calibration of ALMA full-disk images. We suggest that the brightness temperature at the center of the solar disk in Band 6 is ∼440 K above the value recommended by White et al. (2017, Sol. Phys., 292, 88). In addition, we give improved results for the electron temperature variation of the average quiet Sun with optical depth and the derived spectrum at the center of the disk. We found that the electron temperature in the network is considerably lower than predicted by model F of Fontenla et al. (1993, ApJ, 406, 319) and that of the cell interior considerably higher than predicted by model A. Depending on the network/cell segregation scheme, the electron temperature difference between network and cell at τ = 1 (100 GHz) ranges from ∼660 K to ∼1550 K, compared to ∼3280 K predicted by the models; similarly, the electron temperature, Te ratio ranges from ∼1.10 to 1.24, compared to ∼1.55 of the model prediction. We also found that the network/cell Te(τ) curves diverge as τ decreases, indicating an increase of contrast with height and possibly a steeper temperature rise in the network than in the cell interior.
Key words: Sun: radio radiation / Sun: atmosphere / Sun: chromosphere
© ESO 2020
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