Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||21 August 2020|
ALMA resolves the remarkable molecular jet and rotating wind in the extremely radio-quiet galaxy NGC 1377⋆
Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, 439 92 Onsala, Sweden
2 Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
3 Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
4 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan
5 Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy & Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos 15784, Greece
6 Observatoire de Paris, Collège de France, PSL University, Sorbonne University, LERMA, CNRS, Paris, France
7 Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN)-Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII 3, 28014 Madrid, Spain
8 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355, Chile
9 Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355, Chile
10 Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
11 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
12 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA, NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
13 Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku Quantum, Vesilinnantie 5, 20014 Turku, Finland
Accepted: 12 May 2020
Submillimetre and millimetre line and continuum observations are important in probing the morphology, column density, and dynamics of the molecular gas and dust around obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and their mechanical feedback. With very high-resolution (0.″02 × 0.″03 (2 × 3 pc)) ALMA 345 GHz observations of CO 3–2, HCO+ 4–3, vibrationally excited HCN 4–3 ν2 = 1f, and continuum we have studied the remarkable, extremely radio-quiet, molecular jet and wind of the lenticular galaxy NGC 1377. The outflow structure is resolved, revealing a 150 pc long, clumpy, high-velocity (∼600 km s−1), collimated molecular jet where the molecular emission is emerging from the spine of the jet with an average diameter of 3–7 pc. The jet widens to 10–15 pc about 25 pc from the centre, which is possibly due to jet-wind interactions. A narrow-angle (50°–70°), misaligned and rotating molecular wind surrounds the jet, and both are enveloped by a larger-scale CO-emitting structure at near-systemic velocity. The jet and narrow wind have steep radial gas excitation gradients and appear turbulent with high gas dispersion (σ > 40 km s−1). The jet shows velocity reversals that we propose are caused by precession, or more episodic directional changes. We discuss the mechanisms powering the outflow, and we find that an important process for the molecular jet and narrow wind is likely magneto-centrifugal driving. In contrast, the large-scale CO-envelope may be a slow wind, or cocoon that stems from jet-wind interactions. An asymmetric, nuclear r ∼ 2 pc dust structure with a high inferred molecular column density N(H2) ≃1.8 × 1024 cm−2 is detected in continuum and also shows compact emission from vibrationally excited HCN. The nuclear dust emission is hot (Td > 180 K) and its luminosity is likely powered by a buried AGN. The lopsided structure appears to be a warped disk, which is responsible for a significant part of the nuclear obscuration and possibly formed as a result of uneven gas inflows. The dynamical mass inside r = 1.4 pc is estimated to 9−3+2 × 106 M⊙, implying that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) has a high mass with respect to the stellar velocity dispersion of NGC 1377. We suggest that the SMBH of NGC 1377 is currently in a state of moderate growth, at the end of a more intense phase of accretion and also evolving from a state of more extreme nuclear obscuration. The nuclear growth may be fuelled by low-angular momentum gas inflowing from the gas ejected in the molecular jet and wind. Such a feedback-loop of cyclic outflows and central accretion could explain why there is still a significant reservoir of molecular gas in this ageing, lenticular galaxy. A feedback-loop would be an effective process in growing the nuclear SMBH and thus would constitute an important phase in the evolution of NGC 1377. This also invites new questions as to SMBH growth processes in obscured, dusty galaxies.
Key words: galaxies: evolution / galaxies: individual: NGC 1377 / galaxies: active / galaxies: nuclei / ISM: molecules / ISM: jets and outflows
The reduced datacubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/640/A104
© ESO 2020
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