Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Published online||17 August 2020|
Cobalt and copper abundances in 56 Galactic bulge red giants★
Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária,
2 UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
3 IfA, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
4 Université de Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS UMR 6202, BP4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
5 Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile
6 Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Santiago, Chile
7 Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
8 Vatican Observatory, V00120 Vatican City State, Italy
9 Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
10 Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
11 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
Accepted: 15 June 2020
Context. The Milky Way bulge is an important tracer of the early formation and chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. The abundances of different iron-peak elements in field bulge stars can give information on the nucleosynthesis processes that took place in the earliest supernovae. Cobalt (Z = 27) and copper (Z = 29) are particularly interesting.
Aims. We aim to identify the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the formation of the iron-peak elements Co and Cu.
Methods. We derived abundances of the iron-peak elements cobalt and copper in 56 bulge giants, 13 of which were red clump stars. High-resolution spectra were obtained using FLAMES-UVES at the ESO Very Large Telescope by our group in 2000–2002, which appears to be the highest quality sample of optical high-resolution data on bulge red giants obtained in the literature to date. Over the years we have derived the abundances of C, N, O, Na, Al, Mg; the iron-group elements Mn and Zn; and neutron-capture elements. In the present work we derive abundances of the iron-peak elements cobalt and copper. We also compute chemodynamical evolution models to interpret the observed behaviour of these elements as a function of iron.
Results. The sample stars show mean values of [Co/Fe] ~ 0.0 at all metallicities, and [Cu/Fe] ~ 0.0 for [Fe/H] ≥−0.8 and decreasing towards lower metallicities with a behaviour of a secondary element.
Conclusions. We conclude that [Co/Fe] varies in lockstep with [Fe/H], which indicates that it should be produced in the alpha-rich freezeout mechanism in massive stars. Instead [Cu/Fe] follows the behaviour of a secondary element towards lower metallicities, indicating its production in the weak s-process nucleosynthesis in He-burning and later stages. The chemodynamical models presented here confirm the behaviour of these two elements (i.e. [Co/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] ~constant and [Cu/Fe] decreasing with decreasing metallicities).
Key words: stars: abundances / Galaxy: bulge / Galaxy: abundances / nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances / stars: late-type
© ESO 2020
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