Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||24|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||13 July 2020|
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias,
2 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
3 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
4 Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
5 Physikalisches Institut & Center for Space and Habitability, Universität Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
6 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
7 Departamento de Astrofìsica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
8 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748, Garching b. München, Germany
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
10 Observatoire astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
11 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
12 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
13 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
14 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
15 Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, Via Beirut 2, 34151 Miramare, Trieste, Italy
16 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 28006 Madrid, Spain
17 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Región Metropolitana, Chile
18 Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Vavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa, Italy
19 Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
20 Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Departamento de Física), Edifício C8, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
Accepted: 11 May 2020
Context. The discovery of Proxima b marked one of the most important milestones in exoplanetary science in recent years. Yet the limited precision of the available radial velocity data and the difficulty in modelling the stellar activity calls for a confirmation of the Earth-mass planet.
Aims. We aim to confirm the presence of Proxima b using independent measurements obtained with the new ESPRESSO spectrograph, and refine the planetary parameters taking advantage of its improved precision.
Methods. We analysed 63 spectroscopic ESPRESSO observations of Proxima (Gl 551) taken during 2019. We obtained radial velocity measurements with a typical radial velocity photon noise of 26 cm s−1. We combined these data with archival spectroscopic observations and newly obtained photometric measurements to model the stellar activity signals and disentangle them from planetary signals in the radial velocity (RV) data. We ran a joint Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis on the time series of the RV and full width half maximum of the cross-correlation function to model the planetary and stellar signals present in the data, applying Gaussian process regression to deal with the stellar activity signals.
Results. We confirm the presence of Proxima b independently in the ESPRESSO data and in the combined ESPRESSO+ HARPS+UVES dataset. The ESPRESSO data on its own shows Proxima b at a period of 11.218 ± 0.029 days, with a minimum mass of 1.29 ± 0.13 M⊕. In the combined dataset we measure a period of 11.18427 ± 0.00070 days with a minimum mass of 1.173 ± 0.086 M⊕. We get a clear measurement of the stellar rotation period (87 ± 12 d) and its induced RV signal, but no evidence of stellar activity as a potential cause for the 11.2 days signal. We find some evidence for the presence of a second short-period signal, at 5.15 days with a semi-amplitude of only 40 cm s−1. If caused by a planetary companion, it would correspond to a minimum mass of 0.29 ± 0.08 M⊕. We find that forthe case of Proxima, the full width half maximum of the cross-correlation function can be used as a proxy for the brightness changes and that its gradient with time can be used to successfully detrend the RV data from part of the influence of stellar activity. The activity-induced RV signal in the ESPRESSO data shows a trend in amplitude towards redder wavelengths. Velocities measured using the red end of the spectrograph are less affected by activity, suggesting that the stellar activity is spot dominated. This could be used to create differential RVs that are activity dominated and can be used to disentangle activity-induced and planetary-induced signals. The data collected excludes the presence of extra companions with masses above 0.6 M⊕ at periods shorter than 50 days.
Key words: techniques: radial velocities / planets and satellites: terrestrial planets / stars: activity / stars: low-mass / stars: individual: Proxima
The data used in this paper are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/639/A77
Based [in part] on Guaranteed Time Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 1102.C-0744. by the ESPRESSO Consortium.
© ESO 2020
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