This article has an erratum: [https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201937383e]
Volume 636, April 2020
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||17 April 2020|
Molecule formation in dust-poor irradiated jets
I. Stationary disk winds
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
PO Box 9513,
Leiden, The Netherlands
2 LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research Univ., CNRS, Sorbonne Univ., 75014 Paris, France
3 Laboratoire de Physique de l’École normale supérieure, ENS, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75005 Paris, France
4 Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, 91405 Orsay, France
5 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse1, 85748 Garching, Germany
Accepted: 24 February 2020
Context. Recent ALMA observations suggest that the highest velocity part of molecular protostellar jets (≳80 km s−1) are launched from the dust-sublimation regions of the accretion disks (≲0.3 au). However, the formation and survival of molecules in inner protostellar disk winds, in the presence of a harsh far-ultraviolet radiation field and the absence of dust, remains unexplored.
Aims. We aim to determine if simple molecules, such as H2, CO, SiO, and H2O, can be synthesized and spared in fast and collimated dust-free disk winds or if a fraction of dust is necessary to explain the observed molecular abundances.
Methods. This work is based on a recent version of the Paris-Durham shock code designed to model irradiated environments. Fundamental properties of the dust-free chemistry are investigated from single point models. A laminar 1D disk wind model was then built using a parametric flow geometry. This model includes time-dependent chemistry and the attenuation of the radiation field by gas-phase photoprocesses. The influence of the mass-loss rate of the wind and of the fraction of dust on the synthesis of the molecules and on the attenuation of the radiation field is studied in detail.
Results. We show that a small fraction of H2 (≤10−2), which primarily formed through the H− route, can efficiently initiate molecule synthesis, such as CO and SiO above TK ~ 800 K. We also propose new gas-phase formation routes of H2 that can operate in strong visible radiation fields, involving CH+ for instance. The attenuation of the radiation field by atomic species (e.g., C, Si, and S) proceeds through continuum self-shielding. This process ensures the efficient formation of CO, OH, SiO, and H2O through neutral–neutral reactions and the survival of these molecules. Class 0 dust-free winds with high mass-loss rates (Ṁw ≥ 2 × 10−6 M⊙ yr−1) are predicted to be rich in molecules if warm (TK ≥ 800 K). Interestingly, we also predict a steep decrease in the SiO-to-CO abundance ratio with the decline of mass-loss rate, from Class 0 to Class I protostars. The molecular content of disk winds is very sensitive to the presence of dust, and a mass-fraction of surviving dust as small as 10−5 significantly increases the H2O and SiO abundances.
Conclusions. Chemistry of high velocity jets is a powerful tool to probe their content in dust and uncover their launching point. Models of internal shocks are required to fully exploit the current (sub)millimeter observations and prepare future JWST observations.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: jets / stars: protostars / ISM: molecules
© ESO 2020
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