Volume 636, April 2020
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||16 April 2020|
Rise and fall of the high-energy afterglow emission of GRB 180720B
Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dip. di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
2 Gran Sasso Science Institute, Viale F. Crispi 7, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
3 INFN – Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico d’Abruzzo, Via M. Maggini SNC, 64100 Teramo, Italy
5 Universitá degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy
6 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
7 INFN – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
8 INFN – Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34149 Trieste, Italy
9 Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe (IFPU), 34151 Trieste, Italy
Accepted: 7 March 2020
The gamma-ray burst (GRB) 180720B is one of the brightest events detected by the Fermi satellite and the first GRB detected by the H.E.S.S. telescope above 100 GeV, at around ten hours after the trigger time. We analysed the Fermi (GBM and LAT) and Swift (XRT and BAT) data and describe the evolution of the burst spectral energy distribution in the 0.5 keV–10 GeV energy range over the first 500 s of emission. We reveal a smooth transition from the prompt phase, dominated by synchrotron emission in a moderately fast cooling regime, to the afterglow phase whose emission has been observed from the radio to the gigaelectronvolts energy range. The LAT (0.1–100 GeV) light curve initially rises (FLAT ∝ t2.4), peaks at ∼78 s, and falls steeply (FLAT ∝ t−2.2) afterwards. The peak, which we interpret as the onset of the fireball deceleration, allows us to estimate the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 ∼ 150 (300) under the assumption of a circum-burst medium with a wind-like (homogeneous) density profile. We derive a flux upper limit in the LAT energy range at the time of H.E.S.S. detection, but this does not allow us to unveil the nature of the high-energy component observed by H.E.S.S. We fit the prompt spectrum with a physical model of synchrotron emission from a non-thermal population of electrons. The 0–35 s spectrum after its EF(E) peak (at 1–2 MeV) is a steep power law extending to hundreds of megaelectronvolts. We derive a steep slope of the injected electron energy distribution N(γ) ∝ γ−5. Our fit parameters point towards a very low magnetic field (B′ ∼ 1 G) in the emission region.
Key words: γ-ray burst: general / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal / relativistic processes / acceleration of particles
© ESO 2020
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