Volume 636, April 2020
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||30 April 2020|
A family portrait of disk inner rims around Herbig Ae/Be stars
Instituut voor Sterrenkunde (IvS),
2 University of Exeter, School of Physics and Astronomy, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL, UK
3 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
4 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía, CNRS/INSU UMI 3386 and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
5 Space sciences, Technologies, and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
7 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
8 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
9 Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago, Chile
10 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
11 NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
12 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
13 Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA) and School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia
14 Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
15 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
16 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, M/S 321-100, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
17 European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
Accepted: 15 March 2020
Context. The innermost astronomical unit (au) in protoplanetary disks is a key region for stellar and planet formation, as exoplanet searches have shown a large occurrence of close-in planets that are located within the first au around their host star.
Aims. We aim to reveal the morphology of the disk inner rim using near-infrared interferometric observations with milli-arcsecond resolution provided by near-infrared multitelescope interferometry.
Methods. We provide model-independent reconstructed images of 15 objects selected from the Herbig AeBe survey carried out with PIONIER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, using the semi-parametric approach for image reconstruction of chromatic objects. We propose a set of methods to reconstruct and analyze the images in a consistent way.
Results. We find that 40% of the systems (6/15) are centrosymmetric at the angular resolution of the observations. For the rest of the objects, we find evidence for asymmetric emission due to moderate-to-strong inclination of a disk-like structure for ~30% of the objects (5/15) and noncentrosymmetric morphology due to a nonaxisymmetric and possibly variable environment (4/15, ~27%). Among the systems with a disk-like structure, 20% (3/15) show a resolved dust-free cavity. Finally, we do not detect extended emission beyond the inner rim.
Conclusions. The image reconstruction process is a powerful tool to reveal complex disk inner rim morphologies, which is complementary to the fit of geometrical models. At the angular resolution reached by near-infrared interferometric observations, most of the images are compatible with a centrally peaked emission (no cavity). For the most resolved targets, image reconstruction reveals morphologies that cannot be reproduced by generic parametric models (e.g., perturbed inner rims or complex brightness distributions). Moreover, the nonaxisymmetric disks show that the spatial resolution probed by optical interferometers makes the observations of the near-infrared emission (inside a few au) sensitive to temporal evolution with a time-scale down to a few weeks. The evidence of nonaxisymmetric emission that cannot be explained by simple inclination and radiative transfer effects requires alternative explanations, such as a warping of the inner disks. Interferometric observations can therefore be used to follow the evolution of the asymmetry of those disks at an au or sub-au scale.
Key words: stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be / techniques: interferometric / techniques: high angular resolution / protoplanetary disks / circumstellar matter / stars: pre-main sequence
The reconstructed images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/636/A116
Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 190.C-0963.
This is only for illustrative purposes as the process does not minimize the (see Eq. (1)).
© ESO 2020
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