Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||17 March 2020|
The MUSE-Faint survey
I. Spectroscopic evidence for a star cluster in Eridanus 2 and constraints on MACHOs as a constituent of dark matter⋆⋆⋆
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
3 Institute for Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
4 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
5 Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
6 Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
Accepted: 22 January 2020
Aims. It has been shown that the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Eridanus 2 may host a stellar cluster in its centre. If this cluster is shown to exist, it can be used to set constraints on the mass and abundance of massive astrophysical compact halo objects (MACHOs) as a form of dark matter. Previous research has shown promising expectations in the mass range of 10−100 M⊙, but lacked spectroscopic measurements of the cluster. We aim to provide spectroscopic evidence regarding the nature of the putative star cluster in Eridanus 2 and to place constraints on MACHOs as a constituent of dark matter.
Methods. We present spectroscopic observations of the central square arcminute of Eridanus 2 from MUSE-Faint, a survey of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope. We derived line-of-sight velocities for possible member stars of the putative cluster and for stars in the centre of Eridanus 2. We discuss the existence of the cluster and determine new constraints for MACHOs using the Fokker–Planck diffusion approximation.
Results. Out of 182 extracted spectra, we identify 26 member stars of Eridanus 2, seven of which are possible cluster members. We find intrinsic mean line-of-sight velocities of 79.7+3.1−3.8 km s−1 and 76.0+3.2−3.7 km s−1 for the cluster and the bulk of Eridanus 2, respectively, as well as intrinsic velocity dispersions of < 7.6 km s−1 (68% upper limit) and 10.3+3.9−3.2 km s−1, respectively. This indicates that the cluster most likely exists as a distinct dynamical population hosted by Eridanus 2 and that it does not have a surplus of dark matter over the background distribution. Among the member stars in the bulk of Eridanus 2, we find possible carbon stars, alluding to the existence of an intermediate-age population. We derived constraints on the fraction of dark matter that can consist of MACHOs with a given mass between 1 and 105 M⊙. For dark matter consisting purely of MACHOs, the mass of the MACHOs must be less than ∼7.6 M⊙ and ∼44 M⊙ at a 68- and 95% confidence level, respectively.
Key words: dark matter / galaxies: individual: Eridanus 2 / galaxies: star clusters: individual: Eridanus 2 cluster / techniques: imaging spectroscopy
Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/635/A107
Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 0100.D-0807.
© ESO 2020
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.