This article has an erratum: [erratum]
Volume 633, January 2020
|Number of page(s)||23|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||20 January 2020|
Demographics of disks around young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Lupus
European Southern Observatory,
85748 Garching bei München,
2 Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 München, Germany
3 Excellence Cluster Origins, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
4 INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
5 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliams Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
6 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
7 Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria – NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
8 Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago, Chile
9 CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
10 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
11 Earths in Other Solar Systems Team, NASA Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, USA
12 European Southern Observatory, 3107, Alonso de Córdova, Santiago, Chile
13 SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
14 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA Cambridge, UK
15 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
16 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Accepted: 12 November 2019
We present new 890 μm continuum ALMA observations of five brown dwarfs (BDs) with infrared excess in Lupus I and III, which in combination with four previously observed BDs allowed us to study the millimeter properties of the full known BD disk population of one star-forming region. Emission is detected in five out of the nine BD disks. Dust disk mass, brightness profiles, and characteristic sizes of the BD population are inferred from continuum flux and modeling of the observations. Only one source is marginally resolved, allowing for the determination of its disk characteristic size. We conduct a demographic comparison between the properties of disks around BDs and stars in Lupus. Due to the small sample size, we cannot confirm or disprove a drop in the disk mass over stellar mass ratio for BDs, as suggested for Ophiuchus. Nevertheless, we find that all detected BD disks have an estimated dust mass between 0.2 and 3.2 M⊙; these results suggest that the measured solid masses in BD disks cannot explain the observed exoplanet population, analogous to earlier findings on disks around more massive stars. Combined with the low estimated accretion rates, and assuming that the mm-continuum emission is a reliable proxy for the total disk mass, we derive ratios of Ṁacc∕Mdisk that are significantly lower than in disks around more massive stars. If confirmed with more accurate measurements of disk gas masses, this result could imply a qualitatively different relationship between disk masses and inward gas transport in BD disks.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / brown dwarfs / stars: pre-main sequence
© ESO 2020
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