Volume 633, January 2020
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||15 January 2020|
Influences of protoplanet-induced three-dimensional gas flow on pebble accretion
I. Shear regime
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama,
2 Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
Accepted: 28 November 2019
Context. The pebble accretion model has the potential to explain the formation of various types of planets. The main difference between this and the planetesimal accretion model is that pebbles not only experience the gravitational interaction with the growing planet but also a gas drag force from the surrounding protoplanetary disk gas.
Aims. A growing planet embedded in a disk induces three-dimensional (3D) gas flow, which may influence pebble accretion. However, so far the conventional pebble accretion model has only been discussed in the unperturbed (sub-)Keplerian shear flow. In this study, we investigate the influence of 3D planet-induced gas flow on pebble accretion.
Methods. Assuming a nonisothermal, inviscid gas disk, we perform 3D hydrodynamical simulations on the spherical polar grid, which has a planet located at its center. We then numerically integrate the equation of motion of pebbles in 3D using hydrodynamical simulation data.
Results. We find that the trajectories of pebbles in the planet-induced gas flow differ significantly from those in the unperturbed shear flow for a wide range of investigated pebble sizes (St = 10−3–100, where St is the Stokes number). The horseshoe flow and outflow of the gas alter the motion of the pebbles, which leads to a reduction of the width of the accretion window, wacc, and the accretion cross section, Aacc. On the other hand, the changes in trajectories also cause an increase in the relative velocity of pebbles to the planet, which offsets the reduction of wacc and Aacc. As a consequence, in the Stokes regime, the accretion probability of pebbles, Pacc, in the planet-induced gas flow is comparable to that in the unperturbed shear flow except when the Stokes number is small, St ~ 10−3, in 2D accretion, or when the thermal mass of the planet is small, m = 0.03, in 3D accretion. In contrast, in the Epstein regime, Pacc in the planet-induced gas flow becomes smaller than that in the shear flow in the Stokes regime in both 2D and 3D accretion, regardless of assumed St and m.
Conclusions. Our results combined with the spacial variety of turbulence strength and pebble size in a disk, suggest that the 3D planet-induced gas flow may be helpful to explain the distribution of exoplanets and the architecture of the Solar System.
Key words: hydrodynamics / planets and satellites: formation / protoplanetary disks
© ESO 2020
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