Volume 627, July 2019
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||03 July 2019|
Atmospheric circulation of Venus measured with visible imaging spectroscopy at the THEMIS observatory★
Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung,
2 Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, PO Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, USA
3 Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
4 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, UMR 7293, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (OCA), Nice, France
5 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Diderot, France
6 DYPAC, Université Versailles-Saint-Quentin, Université Paris Saclay, France
7 IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS UMR 5277, CNES, UPS. 14, Av. E. Belin. 31400 Toulouse, France
8 THEMIS Observatory, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Accepted: 24 May 2019
Measuring the atmospheric circulation of Venus at different altitudes is important for understanding its complex dynamics, in particular the mechanisms driving super-rotation. Observationally, Doppler imaging spectroscopy is in principle the most reliable way to measure wind speeds of planetary atmospheres because it directly provides the projected speed of atmospheric particles. However, high-resolution imaging spectroscopy is challenging, especially in the visible domain, and most knowledge about atmospheric dynamics has been obtained with the cloud tracking technique. The objective of the present work is to measure the global properties of the atmospheric dynamics of Venus at the altitude of the uppermost clouds, which is probed by reflected solar lines in the visible domain. Our results are based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations with the long-slit spectrometer of the solar telescope THEMIS. We present the first instantaneous “radial-velocity snapshot” of any planet of the solar system in the visible domain, i.e., a complete radial-velocity map of the planet obtained by stacking data on less than 10% of its rotation period. From this, we measured the properties of the zonal and meridional winds, which we unambiguously detect. We identify a wind circulation pattern that significantly differs from previous knowledge about Venus. The zonal wind reveals a “hot spot” structure, featuring about 200 m s−1 at sunrise and 70 m s−1 at noon in the equatorial region. Regarding meridional winds, we detect an equator-to-pole meridional flow peaking at 45 m s−1 at mid-latitudes, i.e., about twice as large as what has been reported so far.
Key words: planets and satellites: individual: Venus / planets and satellites: atmospheres / methods: observational / techniques: imaging spectroscopy / techniques: radial velocities
Tables A.1–A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/627/A82
© P. Gaulme et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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