Volume 625, May 2019
|Number of page(s)||46|
|Published online||07 May 2019|
Study of gravitational fields and globular cluster systems of early-type galaxies
Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Boční II 1401/1a, 141 00 Prague, Czech Republic
2 Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague, Czech Republic
3 Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
4 Lund Observatory, Sövegatan 27, Box 43, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
Accepted: 25 February 2019
Context. Gravitational fields at the outskirts of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are difficult to constrain observationally. It thus remains poorly explored how well the ΛCDM and MOND hypotheses agree with ETGs.
Aims. The dearth of studies on this topic motivated us to gather a large sample of ETGs and examine homogeneously which dark matter halos they occupy, whether the halos follow the theoretically predicted stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) and the halo mass-concentration relation (HMCR), whether ETGs obey MOND and the radial acceleration relation (RAR) observed for late-type galaxies (LTGs), and finally whether ΛCDM or MOND perform better in ETGs.
Methods. We employed Jeans analysis of radial velocities of globular clusters (GCs). We analysed nearly all ETGs having more than about 100 archival GC radial velocity measurements available. The GC systems of our 17 ETGs extend mostly over ten effective radii. A ΛCDM simulation of GC formation helped us to interpret the results.
Results. Successful ΛCDM fits are found for all galaxies, but compared to the theoretical HMCR and SHMR, the best-fit halos usually have concentrations that are too low and stellar masses that are too high for their masses. This might be because of tidal stripping of the halos or because ETGs and LTGs occupy different halos. Most galaxies can be fitted by the MOND models successfully as well, but for some of the galaxies, especially those in centers of galaxy clusters, the observed GC velocity dispersions are too high. This might be a manifestation of the additional dark matter that MOND requires in galaxy clusters. Additionally, we find many signs that the GC systems were perturbed by galaxy interactions. Formal statistical criteria prefer the best-fit ΛCDM models over the MOND models, but this might be due to the higher flexibility of the ΛCDM models. The MOND approach can predict the GC velocity dispersion profiles better.
Key words: gravitation / galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / galaxies: interactions / galaxies: halos / galaxies: clusters: general
© ESO 2019
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