Volume 625, May 2019
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||10 May 2019|
Constraining the orbit of the planet-hosting binary τ Boötis
Clues about planetary formation and migration★
Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University,
Ny Munkegade 120,
Accepted: 13 December 2018
Context. The formation of planets in compact or highly eccentric binaries and the migration of hot Jupiters are two outstanding problems in planet formation. Detailed characterisation of known systems is important for informing and testing models. The hot Jupiter τ Boo Ab orbits the primary star in the long-period (P ≳ 1000 yr), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) double star system τ Boötis. Due to the long orbital period, the orbit of the stellar binary is poorly constrained.
Aims. Here we aim to constrain the orbit of the stellar binary τ Boo AB in order to investigate the formation and migration history of the system. The mutual orbital inclination of the stellar companion and the hot Jupiter has important implications for planet migration. The binary eccentricity and periastron distance are important for understanding the conditions under which τ Boo Ab formed.
Methods. We combine more than 150 yr of astrometric data with twenty-five years of high-precision radial velocities. The combination of sky-projected and line-of-sight measurements places tight constraints on the orbital inclination, eccentricity, and periastron distance of τ Boo AB.
Results. We determine the orbit of τ Boo B and find an orbital inclination of 47.2−3.7+2.7°, a periastron distance of 28.3−3.0+2.3 au, and an eccentricity of 0.87−0.03+0.04. We find that the orbital inclinations of τ Boo Ab and τ Boo B, as well as the stellar spin-axis of τ Boo A coincide at ~45°, a result consistent with the assumption of a well-aligned, coplanar system.
Conclusions. The likely aligned, coplanar configuration suggests planetary migration within a well-aligned protoplanetary disc. Due to the high eccentricity and small periastron distance of τ Boo B, the protoplanetary disc was tidally truncated at ≈6 au. We suggest that τ Boo Ab formed near the edge of the truncated disc and migrated inwards with high eccentricity due to spiral waves generated by the stellar companion.
Key words: stars: individual: τ Boötis / planetary systems / planet-disk interactions / astrometry / techniques: radial velocities / planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability
Tables of the astrometric and radial velocity data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A59
© ESO 2019
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