So close, so different: characterization of the K2-36 planetary system with HARPS-N★
INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino,
Via Osservatorio 20,
10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Universita’di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
5 UC Berkeley Astronomy Department, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
6 Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
7 DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
8 Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712, USA
9 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
10 Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
11 Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
12 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
13 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
14 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5 - 09047 Selargius CA, Italy
15 INAF – Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, 38712 Breña Baja, Spain
16 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
17 Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
18 Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Belfast, UK
Accepted: 4 February 2019
Context. K2-36 is a K dwarf orbited by two small (Rb = 1.43 ± 0.08 R⊕ and Rc = 3.2 ± 0.3 R⊕), close-in (ab = 0.022 au and ac = 0.054 au) transiting planets discovered by the Kepler/K2 space observatory. They are representatives of two distinct families of small planets (Rp < 4 R⊕) recently emerged from the analysis of Kepler data, with likely a different structure, composition and evolutionary pathways.
Aims. We revise the fundamental stellar parameters and the sizes of the planets, and provide the first measurement of their masses and bulk densities, which we use to infer their structure and composition.
Methods. We observed K2-36 with the HARPS-N spectrograph over ~3.5 yr, collecting 81 useful radial velocity measurements. The star is active, with evidence for increasing levels of magnetic activity during the observing time span. The radial velocity scatter is ~17 m s−1 due to the stellar activity contribution, which is much larger that the semi-amplitudes of the planetary signals. We tested different methods for mitigating the stellar activity contribution to the radial velocity time variations and measuring the planet masses with good precision.
Results. We find that K2-36 is likely a ~1 Gyr old system, and by treating the stellar activity through a Gaussian process regression, we measured the planet masses mb = 3.9 ± 1.1 M⊕ and mc = 7.8 ± 2.3 M⊕. The derived planet bulk densities ρb = 7.2−2.1+2.5 g cm−3 and ρc = 1.3−0.5+0.7 g cm−3 point out that K2-36 b has a rocky, Earth-like composition, and K2-36 c is a low-density sub-Neptune.
Conclusions. Composed of two planets with similar orbital separations but different densities, K2-36 represents an optimal laboratory for testing the role of the atmospheric escape in driving the evolution of close-in, low-mass planets after ~1 Gyr from their formation. Due to their similarities, we performed a preliminary comparative analysis between the systems K2-36 and Kepler-36, which we deem worthy of a more detailed investigation.
Key words: stars: individual: k2-36 / planets and satellites: detection / planets and satellites: composition / techniques: radial velocities
Full Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/624/A38
© ESO 2019