Volume 624, April 2019
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||04 April 2019|
Accretion disk versus jet orientation in H2O megamaser galaxies
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
2 Astron. Dept., King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3 Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4 Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd, Kaosiung City 80424, Taiwan
5 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
6 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
7 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
8 Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
9 Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, Campus Hubland Nord, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
10 Dr. Remeis-Observatory, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle, Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 Bamberg, Germany
Accepted: 11 February 2019
Context. An essential part of the paradigm describing active galactic nuclei is the alignment between the radio jet and the associated rotation axis of the sub-pc accretion disks. Because of the small linear and angular scales involved, this alignment has not yet been checked in a sufficient number of low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs).
Aims. The project examines the validity of this paradigm by measuring the radio continuum on the same physical scale as the accretion disks to investigate any possible connection between these disks and the radio continuum.
Methods. We observed a sample of 18 LLAGNs in the 4.8 GHz (6 cm) radio continuum using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) with 3.3–6.5 ms resolution. The sources were selected to show both an edge-on accretion disk revealed by 22 GHz H2O megamaser emission and signatures of a radio jet. Furthermore, the sources were previously detected in 33 GHz radio continuum observations made with the Very Large Array.
Results. Five out of 18 galaxies observed were detected at 8σ or higher levels (Mrk 0001, Mrk 1210, Mrk 1419, NGC 2273, and UGC 3193). While these five sources are known to have maser disks, four of them exhibit a maser disk with known orientation. For all four of these sources, the radio continuum is misaligned relative to the rotation axis of the maser disk, but with a 99.1% confidence level, the orientations are not random and are confined to a cone within 32° of the maser disk’s normal. Among the four sources the misalignment of the radio continuum with respect to the normal vector to the maser disk is smaller when the inner radius of the maser disk is larger. Furthermore, a correlation is observed between the 5 GHz VLBA radio continuum and the [OIII] luminosity and also with the H2O maser disk’s inner radius.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / galaxies: ISM / galaxies: nuclei / galaxies: Seyfert / radio continuum: galaxies
© F. Kamali et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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