Spectral analysis of the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2−39★
European Southern Observatory,
Garching bei München, Germany
2 Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
3 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Accepted: 4 February 2019
Context. Barium stars are peculiar red giants characterized by an overabundance of the elements synthesized in the slow neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (s-process elements) along with an enrichment in carbon. These stars are discovered in binaries with white dwarf companions. The more recently formed of these stars are still surrounded by a planetary nebula.
Aims. Precise abundance determinations of the various s-process elements, of further key elements that act as indicators for effectiveness of nucleosynthesis on the asymptotic giant branch and, especially, of the lightest, short-lived radionuclide technetium will establish constraints for the formation of s-process elements in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as mass transfer through, for example, stellar wind, Roche-lobe overflow, and common-envelope evolution.
Methods. We performed a detailed spectral analysis of the K-type subgiant central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2−39 based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope using local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres.
Results. We confirm the effective temperature of Teff = (4350 ± 150) K for the central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2−39. It has a photospheric carbon enrichment of [C∕H] = 0.36 ± 0.08 and a barium overabundance of [Ba∕Fe] = 1.8 ± 0.5. We find a deficiency for most of the iron-group elements (calcium to iron) and establish an upper abundance limit for technetium (log ɛTc < 2.5).
Conclusions. The quality of the available optical spectra is not sufficient to measure abundances of all s-process elements accurately. Despite large uncertainties on the abundances as well as on the model yields, the derived abundances are most consistent with a progenitor mass in the range 1.75–3.00 M⊙ and a metallicity of [Fe∕H] = −0.3 ± 1.0. This result leads to the conclusion that the formation of such systems requires a relatively large mass transfer that is most easily obtained via wind-Roche lobe overflow.
Key words: planetary nebulae: individual: Hen 2–39 / stars: abundances / stars: evolution / stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: chemically peculiar / binaries: general
© ESO 2019