Volume 624, April 2019
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||17 April 2019|
Building protoplanetary disks from the molecular cloud: redefining the disk timeline
IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, Université Lille,
77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau,
2 Centre National d’Études Spatiales, 2 place Maurice Quentin, 75039 Paris Cedex 01, France
3 Université Paris-Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, CNRS, Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
4 77 avenue Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France
Accepted: 26 February 2019
Context. Planetary formation models are necessary to understand the characteristics of the planets that are the most likely to survive. Their dynamics, their composition and even the probability of their survival depend on the environment in which they form. We therefore investigate the most favorable locations for planetary embryos to accumulate in the protoplanetary disk: the planet traps.
Aims. We study the formation of the protoplanetary disk by the collapse of a primordial molecular cloud, and how its evolution leads to the selection of specific types of planets.
Methods. We use a hydrodynamical code that accounts for the dynamics, thermodynamics, geometry and composition of the disk to numerically model its evolution as it is fed by the infalling cloud material. As the mass accretion rate of the disk onto the star determines its growth, we can calculate the stellar characteristics by interpolating its radius, luminosity and temperature over the stellar mass from pre-calculated stellar evolution models. The density and midplane temperature of the disk then allow us to model the interactions between the disk and potential planets and determine their migration.
Results. At the end of the collapse phase, when the disk reaches its maximum mass, it pursues its viscous spreading, similarly to the evolution from a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN). In addition, we establish a timeline equivalence between the MMSN and a “collapse-formed disk” that would be older by about 2 Myr.
Conclusions. We can save various types of planets from a fatal type-I inward migration: in particular, planetary embryos can avoid falling on the star by becoming trapped at the heat transition barriers and at most sublimation lines (except the silicates one). One of the novelties concerns the possible trapping of putative giant planets around a few astronomical units from the star around the end of the infall. Moreover, trapped planets may still follow the traps outward during the collapse phase and inward after it. Finally, this protoplanetary disk formation model shows the early possibilities of trapping planetary embryos at disk stages that are anterior by a few million years to the initial state of the MMSN approximation.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / planet–disk interactions / planets and satellites: formation / accretion, accretion disks / planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / hydrodynamics
© K. Baillié et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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