Multiplicity of Galactic Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars from Gaia DR2
II. Resolved common proper motion pairs⋆
LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
2 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
3 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
4 Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege M. út 15-17 1121, Hungary
5 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
6 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
7 Université Côte d’Azur, OCA, CNRS, Lagrange, France
8 Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
9 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa, Poland
Accepted: 11 October 2018
Context. The multiplicity of classical Cepheids (CCs) and RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) is still imperfectly known, particularly for RRLs.
Aims. In order to complement the close-in short orbital period systems presented in Paper I, our aim is to detect the wide, spatially resolved companions of the targets of our reference samples of Galactic CCs and RRLs.
Methods. Angularly resolved common proper motion pairs were detected using a simple progressive selection algorithm to separate the most probable candidate companions from the unrelated field stars.
Results. We found 27 resolved, high probability gravitationally bound systems with CCs out of 456 examined stars, and one unbound star embedded in the circumstellar dusty nebula of the long-period Cepheid RS Pup. We found seven spatially resolved, probably bound systems with RRL primaries out of 789 investigated stars, and 22 additional candidate pairs. We report in particular new companions of three bright RRLs: OV And (companion of F4V spectral type), RR Leo (M0V), and SS Oct (K2V). In addition, we discovered resolved companions of 14 stars that were likely misclassified as RRLs.
Conclusions. The detection of resolved non-variable companions around CCs and RRLs facilitates the validation of their Gaia DR2 parallaxes. The possibility to conduct a detailed analysis of the resolved coeval companions of CCs and old population RRLs will also be valuable to progress on our understanding of their evolutionary path.
Key words: stars: variables: Cepheids / stars: variables: RR Lyrae / astrometry / proper motions / binaries: general / binaries: visual
Tables A.1–C.1 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/623/A117
© P. Kervella et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.