Volume 620, December 2018
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||19 December 2018|
Overdensity of submillimeter galaxies around the z ≃ 2.3 MAMMOTH-1 nebula
The environment and powering of an enormous Lyman-α nebula⋆
European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748
Garching bei München, Germany
2 Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
3 Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
4 UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 USA
5 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
6 Tsinghua University, 30 Shuangqing Rd, Haidian Qu, Beijing Shi, PR China
7 Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Korea
Accepted: 22 October 2018
In the hierarchical model of structure formation, giant elliptical galaxies form through merging processes within the highest density peaks known as protoclusters. While high-redshift radio galaxies usually pinpoint the location of these environments, we have recently discovered at z ∼ 2−3 three enormous (> 200 kpc) Lyman-α nebulae (ELANe) that host multiple active galactic nuclei (AGN) and that are surrounded by overdensities of Lyman-α emitters (LAE). These regions are prime candidates for massive protoclusters in the early stages of assembly. To characterize the star-forming activity within these rare structures – both on ELAN and protocluster scales – we have initiated an observational campaign with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescopes. In this paper we report on sensitive SCUBA-2/JCMT 850 and 450 μm observations of a ∼128 arcmin2 field comprising the ELAN MAMMOTH-1, together with the peak of the hosting BOSS1441 LAE overdensity at z = 2.32. These observations unveil 4.0 ± 1.3 times higher source counts at 850 μm with respect to blank fields, likely confirming the presence of an overdensity also in obscured tracers. We find a strong detection at 850 μm associated with the continuum source embedded within the ELAN MAMMOTH-1, which – together with the available data from the literature – allow us to constrain the spectral energy distribution of this source to be of an ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with a far-infrared luminosity of LFIRSF = 2.4−2.1+7.4×1012 L⊙, and hosting an obscured AGN. Such a source is thus able to power a hard photoionization plus outflow scenario to explain the extended Lyman-α, He IIλ1640, and C IVλ1549 emission, and their kinematics. In addition, the two brightest detections at 850 μm (f850 > 18 mJy) sit at the density peak of the LAEs’ overdensity, likely pinpointing the core of the protocluster. Future multiwavelength and spectroscopic datasets targeting the full extent of the BOSS1441 overdensity have the potential to firmly characterize a cosmic nursery of giant elliptical galaxies, and ultimately of a massive cluster.
Key words: submillimeter: galaxies / galaxies: high-redshift / galaxies: halos / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: evolution / large-scale structure of Universe
The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/620/A202
© ESO 2018
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