Volume 620, December 2018
The XXL Survey: second series
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||20 November 2018|
The XXL Survey
XXXV. The role of cluster mass in AGN activity★
AIM, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité,
2 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice cedex 4, France
3 School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
4 Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
5 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
6 National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nymfon, 11810 Athens, Greece
7 Physics Department of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
8 Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
9 Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Space Applications & Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Palaia Penteli, Greece
10 INAF - IASF - Milano, Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
11 Main Astronomical Observatory, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Akademika Zabolotnoho St., 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine
12 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, via Gobetti 93/2, 40129 Bologna, Italy
13 INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Pietro Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
14 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
15 Center for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
16 Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Accepted: 19 July 2018
Context. We present the results of a study of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) density in a homogeneous and well-studied sample of 167 bona fide X-ray galaxy clusters (0.1 < z < 0.5) from the XXL Survey, from the cluster core to the outskirts (up to 6r500). The results can provide evidence of the physical mechanisms that drive AGN and galaxy evolution within clusters, testing the efficiency of ram pressure gas stripping and galaxy merging in dense environments.
Aims. The XXL cluster sample mostly comprises poor and moderately rich structures (M = 1013–4 × 1014 M⊙), a poorly studied population that bridges the gap between optically selected groups and massive X-ray selected clusters. Our aim is to statistically study the demographics of cluster AGNs as a function of cluster mass and host galaxy position.
Methods. To investigate the effect of the environment on AGN activity, we computed the fraction of spectroscopically confirmed X-ray AGNs (LX [0.5-10 keV] > 1042 erg cm−1) in bright cluster galaxies with Mi* − 2 < M < Mi* + 1, up to 6r500 radius. The corresponding field fraction was computed from 200 mock cluster catalogues with reshuffled positions within the XXL fields. To study the mass dependence and the evolution of the AGN population, we further divided the sample into low- and high-mass clusters (below and above 1014M⊙, respectively) and two redshift bins (0.1–0.28 and 0.28–0.5).
Results. We detect a significant excess of X-ray AGNs, at the 95% confidence level, in low-mass clusters between 0.5r500 and 2r500, which drops to the field value within the cluster cores (r < 0.5r500). In contrast, high-mass clusters present a decreasing AGN fraction towards the cluster centres, in agreement with previous studies. The high AGN fraction in the outskirts is caused by low-luminosity AGNs, up to LX [0.5-10 keV] = 1043 erg cm−1. It can be explained by a higher galaxy merging rate in low-mass clusters, where velocity dispersions are not high enough to prevent galaxy interactions and merging. Ram pressure stripping is possible in the cores of all our clusters, but probably stronger in deeper gravitational potentials. Compared with previous studies of massive or high-redshift clusters, we conclude that the AGN fraction in cluster galaxies anti-correlates strongly with cluster mass. The AGN fraction also increases with redshift, but at the same rate with the respective fraction in field galaxies.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: clusters: genera / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / galaxies: interactions / galaxies: evolution / large-scale structure of Universe
© ESO 2018
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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