Open cluster kinematics with Gaia DR2⋆
Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615
2 Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio, via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
5 CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 75120 Uppsala, Sweden
7 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
Accepted: 11 September 2018
Context. Open clusters are very good tracers of the evolution of the Galactic disc. Thanks to Gaia, their kinematics can be investigated with an unprecedented precision and accuracy.
Aims. The distribution of open clusters in the 6D phase space is revisited with Gaia DR2.
Methods. The weighted mean radial velocity of open clusters was determined, using the most probable members available from a previous astrometric investigation that also provided mean parallaxes and proper motions. Those parameters, all derived from Gaia DR2 only, were combined to provide the 6D phase-space information of 861 clusters. The velocity distribution of nearby clusters was investigated, as well as the spatial and velocity distributions of the whole sample as a function of age. A high-quality subsample was used to investigate some possible pairs and groups of clusters sharing the same Galactic position and velocity.
Results. For the high-quality sample of 406 clusters, the median uncertainty of the weighted mean radial velocity is 0.5 km s−1. The accuracy, assessed by comparison to ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy, is better than 1 km s−1. Open clusters nicely follow the velocity distribution of field stars in the close solar neighbourhood as previously revealed by Gaia DR2. As expected, the vertical distribution of young clusters is very flat, but the novelty is the high precision to which this can be seen. The dispersion of vertical velocities of young clusters is at the level of 5 km s−1. Clusters older than 1 Gyr span distances to the Galactic plane of up to 1 kpc with a vertical velocity dispersion of 14 km s−1, typical of the thin disc. Five pairs of clusters and one group with five members might be physically related. Other binary candidates that have been identified previously are found to be chance alignments.
Key words: stars: kinematics and dynamics / Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics / open clusters and associations: general
The table with cluster velocities is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/619/A155
© ESO 2018
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.