Volume 619, November 2018
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||30 October 2018|
SPOTS: The Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars
III. Complete sample and statistical analysis★
Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center,
2 Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
5 Astrobiology Center of NINS, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
6 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan
7 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
8 Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, Italy
9 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
10 Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
Accepted: 12 July 2018
Binary stars constitute a large percentage of the stellar population, yet relatively little is known about the planetary systems orbiting them. Most constraints on circumbinary planets (CBPs) so far come from transit observations with the Kepler telescope, which is sensitive to close-in exoplanets but does not constrain planets on wider orbits. However, with continuous developments in high-contrast imaging techniques, this population can now be addressed through direct imaging. We present the full survey results of the Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars (SPOTS) survey, which is the first direct imaging survey targeting CBPs. The SPOTS observational program comprises 62 tight binaries that are young and nearby, and thus suitable for direct imaging studies, with VLT/NaCo and VLT/SPHERE. Results from SPOTS include the resolved circumbinary disk around AK Sco, the discovery of a low-mass stellar companion in a triple packed system, the relative astrometry of up to 9 resolved binaries, and possible indications of non-background planetary-mass candidates around HIP 77911. We did not find any CBP within 300 AU, which implies a frequency upper limit on CBPs (1–15 MJup) of 6–10% between 30–300 AU. Coupling these observations with an archival dataset for a total of 163 stellar pairs, we find a best-fit CBP frequency of 1.9% (2–15 MJup) between 1 and 300 AU with a 10.5% upper limit at a 95% confidence level. This result is consistent with the distribution of companions around single stars.
Key words: instrumentation: high angular resolution / binaries: general / planets and satellites: gaseous planets / astrometry / brown dwarfs / stars: imaging
© ESO 2018
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.