Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
2 LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, PSL Univ., Sorbonne Univ., 75014 Paris, France
3 Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France
4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
5 Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
6 Laboratory for Space Research, Faculty of Science, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
7 Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India
8 Department of Physics, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, 700073 Kolkata, India
Accepted: 23 July 2018
We present IRAM 30 m and APEX telescope observations of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) lines in 36 group-dominant early-type galaxies, completing our molecular gas survey of dominant galaxies in the Complete Local-volume Groups Sample. We detect CO emission in 12 of the galaxies at > 4σ significance, with molecular gas masses in the range ∼ 0.01 − 6 × 108 M⊙, as well as CO in absorption in the non-dominant group member galaxy NGC 5354. In total 21 of the 53 CLoGS dominant galaxies are detected in CO and we confirm our previous findings that they have low star formation rates (0.01–1 M⊙yr−1) but short depletion times (>1 Gyr) implying rapid replenishment of their gas reservoirs. Comparing molecular gas mass with radio luminosity, we find that a much higher fraction of our group-dominant galaxies (60 ± 16%) are AGN-dominated than is the case for the general population of ellipticals, but that there is no clear connection between radio luminosity and the molecular gas mass. Using data from the literature, we find that at least 27 of the 53 CLoGS dominant galaxies contain H I, comparable to the fraction of nearby non-cluster early type galaxies detected in H I and significantly higher that the fraction in the Virgo cluster. We see no correlation between the presence of an X-ray detected intra-group medium and molecular gas in the dominant galaxy, but find that the H I-richest galaxies are located in X-ray faint groups. Morphological data from the literature suggests the cold gas component most commonly takes the form of a disk, but many systems show evidence of galaxy-galaxy interactions, indicating that they may have acquired their gas through stripping or mergers. We provide improved molecular gas mass estimates for two galaxies previously identified as being in the centres of cooling flows, NGC 4636 and NGC 5846, and find that they are relatively molecular gas poor compared to our other detected systems.
Key words: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / galaxies: groups: general / galaxies: star formation / radio lines: galaxies
Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.
The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/618/A126
© ESO 2018