Volume 617, September 2018
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||18 September 2018|
Wind and nebula of the M 33 variable GR 290 (WR/LBV)⋆
Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 25165
Ondřejov, Czech Republic
2 Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ave. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
3 Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky pr. 13, 119234 Moscow, Russia
4 Università Sapienza, Piazza A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
5 INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali di Roma (IAPS-INAF), Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
6 Associazione Romana Astrofili, Roma, Italy
Accepted: 29 May 2018
Context. GR 290 (M 33/V532 = Romano’s Star) is a suspected post-luminous blue variable star located in M 33 galaxy that shows a rare Wolf–Rayet (WR) spectrum during its minimum light phase. In spite of many studies, its atmospheric structure, its circumstellar environment, and its place in the general context of massive stars’ evolution is poorly known.
Aims. We present a detailed study of this star’s wind and mass loss, and a study of the circumstellar environment associated to the star.
Methods. Long-slit spectra of GR 290 were obtained during its present minimum luminosity phase with the Gran Telescopio Canarias covering the ∼3600–7500 Å wavelength range together with contemporaneous photometry using B, V, R and I filters. The data were compared with non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) model atmosphere synthetic spectra computed with CMFGEN code and with models for ionized interstellar medium regions computed with CLOUDY code.
Results. The current mV = 18.8 mag is the faintest at which this source has ever been observed. The non-LTE models indicate effective temperatures of Teff = 27 000–30 000 K at radius R2/3 = 27−21 R⊙ and mass-loss rate Ṁ = 1.5 × 10−5 M⊙yr−1. The terminal wind speed v∞ = 620 km s−1 is faster than ever before recorded, while the current luminosity L* = (3.1–3.7) × 105L⊙ is the lowest ever deduced. The star is overabundant in He and N and underabundant in C and O. It is surrounded by an unresolved compact H II region with dimensions ≤4 pc, from where H-Balmer, He I lines, and [O III] and [N II] are detected. In addition, we find emission from a more extended interstellar medium (ISM) region, which appears to be asymmetric, with a larger extent to the east (16–40 pc) than to the west.
Conclusions. In the present long lasting visual minimum, GR 290 is in a lower bolometric luminosity state with higher mass-loss rate. The nearby nebular emission seems to suggest that the star has undergone significant mass loss over the past 104–105 yr and is nearing the end stages of its evolution.
Key words: stars: Wolf–Rayet / stars: variables: S Doradus / stars: winds, outflows / stars: evolution / stars: individual / GR 290 / galaxies: individual: M 33
Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma and with the Cassini 1.52-m telescope of the Bologna Observatory (Italy).
© ESO 2018
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