First direct detection of a polarized companion outside a resolved circumbinary disk around CS Chamaeleonis⋆,⋆⋆
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía, CNRS/INSU UMI 3386 and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
4 Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
5 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
6 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
7 Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
8 Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
9 University Observatory, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Munich, Germany
10 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
11 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla, 19001 Santiago, Chile
12 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña, 1111 Valparaíso, Chile
13 Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria - NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña, 1111 Valparaíso, Chile
14 Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Astronomía, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Accepted: 27 April 2018
Aims. To understand planet formation it is necessary to study the birth environment of planetary systems. Resolved imaging of young planet forming disks allows us to study this environment in great detail and find signs of planet-disk interaction and disk evolution. In the present study we aim to investigate the circumstellar environment of the spectroscopic binary T Tauri star CS Cha. From unresolved mid-to far-infrared photometry it is predicted that CS Cha hosts a disk with a large cavity. In addition, spectral energy distribution modeling suggests significant dust settling, pointing toward an evolved disk that may show signs of ongoing or completed planet formation.
Methods. We observed CS Cha with the high contrast imager SPHERE at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) in polarimetric differential imaging mode to resolve the circumbinary disk in near-infrared scattered light. These observations were followed up by VLT/NACO L-band observations and complemented by archival VLT/NACO K-band and Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 I-band data.
Results. We resolve the compact circumbinary disk around CS Cha for the first time in scattered light. We find a smooth, low inclination disk with an outer radius of ~55 au (at 165 pc). We do not detect the inner cavity but find an upper limit for the cavity size of ~15 au. Furthermore, we find a faint comoving companion with a projected separation of 210 au from the central binary outside of the circumbinary disk. The companion is detected in polarized light and shows an extreme degree of polarization (13.7 ± 0.4% in the J band). The J- and H-band magnitudes of the companion are compatible with masses of a few MJup. However, K-, L-, and I-band data draw this conclusion into question. We explore with radiative transfer modeling whether an unresolved circum-companion disk can be responsible for the high polarization and complex photometry. We find that the set of observations is best explained by a heavily extincted low-mass (~20 MJup) brown dwarf or high-mass planet with an unresolved disk and dust envelope.
Key words: stars: individual: CS Cha / protoplanetary disks / planet-disk interactions / techniques: polarimetric
Based on observations performed with VLT/SPHERE under program ID 098.C-0760(B) and 099.C-0891(B) and VLT/NACO under program ID 298.C-5054(B) and 076.C-0292(A)
The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A79
© ESO 2018