The evolution of young HII regions
I. Continuum emission and internal dynamics★
UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh,
EH9 3HJ, UK
2 School of Physics & Astronomy, E.C. Stoner Building, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3 Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH, UK
4 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
5 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
6 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
7 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
8 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
9 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
10 ALLEGRO/Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Accepted: 30 November 2017
Context. High-mass stars form in much richer environments than those associated with isolated low-mass stars, and once they reach a certain mass, produce ionised (HII) regions. The formation of these pockets of ionised gas are unique to the formation of high-mass stars (M > 8 M⊙), and present an excellent opportunity to study the final stages of accretion, which could include accretion through the HII region itself.
Aim. This study of the dynamics of the gas on both sides of these ionisation boundaries in very young HII regions aims to quantify the relationship between the HII regions and their immediate environments.
Methods. We present high-resolution (~0.5″) ALMA observations of nine HII regions selected from the red MSX source survey with compact radio emission and bolometric luminosities greater than 104 L⊙. We focus on the initial presentation of the data, including initial results from the radio recombination line H29α, some complementary molecules, and the 256 GHz continuum emission.
Results. Of the six (out of nine) regions with H29α detections, two appear to have cometary morphologies with velocity gradients across them, and two appear more spherical with velocity gradients suggestive of infalling ionised gas. The remaining two were either observed at low resolution or had signals that were too weak to draw robust conclusions. We also present a description of the interactions between the ionised and molecular gas (as traced by CS (J = 5 − 4)), often (but not always) finding the HII region had cleared its immediate vicinity of molecules.
Conclusions. Of our sample of nine, the observations of the two clusters expected to have the youngest HII regions (from previous radio observations) are suggestive of having infalling motions in the H29α emission, which could be indicative of late stage accretion onto the stars despite the presence of an HII region.
Key words: stars: massive / stars: formation / HII regions / ISM: kinematics and dynamics / submillimetre: ISM
Table A.2 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A99
© ESO 2018