III. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530 B-type stars with circumstellar envelopes★,★★
Instituto de Astrofísica La Plata, CCT La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque S/N,
La Plata, Argentina
2 Departamento de Espectroscopía, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata, Argentina
3 Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 934 UMR 7095-IAP, 75014 Paris, France
4 CNRS, 934 UMR7095-IAP, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Bd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France
Accepted: 26 October 2017
Context. Stellar physical properties of star clusters are poorly known and the cluster parameters are often very uncertain.
Methods. Our goals are to perform a spectrophotometric study of the B star population in open clusters to derive accurate stellar parameters, search for the presence of circumstellar envelopes, and discuss the characteristics of these stars. The BCD spectrophotometric system is a powerful method to obtain stellar fundamental parameters from direct measurements of the Balmer discontinuity. To this end, we wrote the interactive code MIDE3700. The BCD parameters can also be used to infer the main properties of open clusters: distance modulus, color excess, and age. Furthermore, we inspected the Balmer discontinuity to provide evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks and identify Be star candidates. We used an additional set of high-resolution spectra in the Hα region to confirm the Be nature of these stars.
Results. We provide Teff, log g, Mv, Mbol, and spectral types for a sample of 68 stars in the field of the open clusters NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530, as well as the cluster distances, ages, and reddening. Then, based on a sample of 230 B stars in the direction of the 11 open clusters studied along this series of three papers, we report 6 new Be stars, 4 blue straggler candidates, and 15 B-type stars (called Bdd) with a double Balmer discontinuity, which indicates the presence of circumstellar envelopes. We discuss the distribution of the fraction of B, Be, and Bdd star cluster members per spectral subtype. The majority of the Be stars are dwarfs and present a maximum at the spectral type B2-B4 in young and intermediate-age open clusters (<40 Myr). Another maximum of Be stars is observed at the spectral type B6-B8 in open clusters older than 40 Myr, where the population of Bdd stars also becomes relevant. The Bdd stars seem to be in a passive emission phase.
Conclusions. Our results support previous statements that the Be phenomenon is present along the whole main sequence band and occurs in very different evolutionary states. We find clear evidence of an increase of stars with circumstellar envelopes with cluster age. The Be phenomenon reaches its maximum in clusters of intermediate age (10–40 Myr) and the number of B stars with circumstellar envelopes (Be plus Bdd stars) is also high for the older clusters (40–100 Myr).
Key words: open clusters and associations: individual: NGC 6087 / open clusters and associations: individual: NGC 6250 / open clusters and associations: individual: NGC 6383 / open clusters and associations: individual: NGC 6530 / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: emission-line
Observations taken at CASLEO, operating under agreement of CONICET and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan, Argentina.
Tables 1, 2, 9–16 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A30
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