Variability in stellar granulation and convective blueshift with spectral type and magnetic activity
II. From young to old main-sequence K-G-F stars⋆
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
Received: 21 April 2017
Accepted: 29 August 2017
Context. The inhibition of small-scale convection in the Sun dominates the long-term radial velocity (RV) variability: it therefore has a critical effect on light exoplanet detectability using RV techniques.
Aims. We here extend our previous analysis of stellar convective blueshift and its dependence on magnetic activity to a larger sample of stars in order to extend the Teff range, to study the impact of other stellar properties, and finally to improve the comparison between observed RV jitter and expected RV variations.
Methods. We estimate a differential velocity shift for Fe and Ti lines of different depths and derive an absolute convective blueshift using the Sun as a reference for a sample of 360 F7-K4 stars with different properties (age, Teff, metallicity).
Results. We confirm the strong variation in convective blueshift with Teff and its dependence on (as shown in the line list in Paper I) activity level. Although we do not observe a significant effect of age or cyclic activity, stars with a higher metallicity tend to have a lower convective blueshift, with a larger effect than expected from numerical simulations. Finally, we estimate that for 71% of the stars in our sample the RV and Log variations are compatible with the effect of activity on convection, as observed in the solar case, while for the other stars, other sources (such as binarity or companions) must be invoked to explain the large RV variations. We also confirm a relationship between Log and metallicity, which may affect discussions of the possible relationship between metallicity and exoplanets, as RV surveys are biased toward low Log and possibly toward high-metallicity stars.
Conclusions. We conclude that activity and metallicity strongly affect the small-scale convection levels in stars in the F7-K4 range, with a lower amplitude for the lower mass stars and a larger amplitude for low-metallicity stars.
Key words: convection / techniques: radial velocities / stars: magnetic field / stars: activity / stars: solar-type / Sun: granulation
Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A124
© ESO, 2017