Volume 607, November 2017
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Published online||20 November 2017|
The impact of clustering and angular resolution on far-infrared and millimeter continuum observations⋆
1 Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, 13013 Marseille, France
2 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
3 California Institute of Technology, MC 367-17, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
4 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
5 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
6 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
7 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
8 CEA Saclay, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
9 SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy
10 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
11 INFN–Sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Received: 24 March 2017
Accepted: 15 August 2017
Follow-up observations at high-angular resolution of bright submillimeter galaxies selected from deep extragalactic surveys have shown that the single-dish sources are comprised of a blend of several galaxies. Consequently, number counts derived from low- and high-angular-resolution observations are in tension. This demonstrates the importance of resolution effects at these wavelengths and the need for realistic simulations to explore them. We built a new 2 deg2 simulation of the extragalactic sky from the far-infrared to the submillimeter. It is based on an updated version of the 2SFM (two star-formation modes) galaxy evolution model. Using global galaxy properties generated by this model, we used an abundance-matching technique to populate a dark-matter lightcone and thus simulate the clustering. We produced maps from this simulation and extracted the sources, and we show that the limited angular resolution of single-dish instruments has a strong impact on (sub)millimeter continuum observations. Taking into account these resolution effects, we are reproducing a large set of observables, as number counts and their evolution with redshift and cosmic infrared background power spectra. Our simulation consistently describes the number counts from single-dish telescopes and interferometers. In particular, at 350 and 500 μm, we find that the number counts measured by Herschel between 5 and 50 mJy are biased towards high values by a factor ~2, and that the redshift distributions are biased towards low redshifts. We also show that the clustering has an important impact on the Herschel pixel histogram used to derive number counts from P(D) analysis. We find that the brightest galaxy in the beam of a 500 μm Herschel source contributes on average to only ~60% of the Herschel flux density, but that this number will rise to ~95% for future millimeter surveys on 30 m-class telescopes (e.g., NIKA2 at IRAM). Finally, we show that the large number density of red Herschel sources found in observations but not in models might be an observational artifact caused by the combination of noise, resolution effects, and the steepness of color- and flux density distributions. Our simulation, called Simulated Infrared Dusty Extragalactic Sky (SIDES), is publicly available.
Key words: galaxies: statistics / galaxies: evolution / galaxies: star formation / galaxies: high-redshift / infrared: galaxies / submillimeter: galaxies
Our simulation Simulated Infrared Dusty Extragalactic Sky (SIDES) is available at http://cesam.lam.fr/sides.
© ESO, 2017
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