An X-ray view of HD 166734, a massive supergiant system⋆
Groupe d’Astrophysique des Hautes Énergies, STAR, Université de Liège, Quartier Agora (B5c, Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique), Allée du 6 Août 19c, 4000 Sart Tilman, Liège Belgium
Received: 21 December 2016
Accepted: 10 March 2017
The X-ray emission of the O+O binary HD 166734 was monitored using Swift and XMM-Newton observatories, leading to the discovery of phase-locked variations. The presence of an f line in the He-like triplets further supports a wind-wind collision as the main source of the X-rays in HD 166734. While temperature and absorption do not vary significantly along the orbit, the X-ray emission strength varies by one order of magnitude, with a long minimum state (Δ(φ) ~ 0.1) occurring after a steep decrease. The flux at minimum is compatible with the intrinsic emission of the O-stars in the system, suggesting a possible disappearance of colliding wind emission. While this minimum cannot be explained by eclipse or occultation effects, a shock collapse may occur at periastron in view of the wind properties. Afterwards, the recovery is long, with an X-ray flux proportional to the separation d (in hard band) or to d2 (in soft band). This is incompatible with an adiabatic nature for the collision (which would instead lead to FX ∝ 1 /d), but could be reconciled with a radiative character of the collision, though predicted temperatures are lower and more variable than in observations. An increase in flux around φ ~ 0.65 and the global asymmetry of the light curve remain unexplained, however.
Key words: stars: early-type / stars: winds, outflows / X-rays: stars / stars: individual: HD 166734
Based on observations collected with Swift and the ESA science mission XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).
© ESO, 2017