1 Department of Physics, Division of Geophysics and Astronomy, PO Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
2 Dr. Karl Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg, Germany
3 Universidad de Atacama, 485 Copayapu, Copiapo, Chile
4 Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö, Finland
5 Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden
Received: 13 January 2015
Accepted: 7 July 2017
Context. The Rosette nebula is an H ii region ionized mainly by the stellar cluster NGC 2244. Elephant trunks, globules, and globulettes are seen at the interface where the H ii region and the surrounding molecular shell meet.
Aims. We have observed a field in the northwestern part of the Rosette nebula where we study the small globules protruding from the shell. Our aim is to measure their properties and study their star-formation history in continuation of our earlier study of the features of the region.
Methods. We imaged the region in broadband near-infrared (NIR) JsHKs filters and narrowband H2 1–0 S(1), Pβ, and continuum filters using the SOFI camera at the ESO/NTT. The imaging was used to study the stellar population and surface brightness, create visual extinction maps, and locate star formation. Mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer IRAC and WISE and optical NOT images were used to further study the star formation and the structure of the globules. The NIR and MIR observations indicate an outflow, which is confirmed with CO observations made with APEX.
Results. The globules have mean number densities of ~ 4.6 × 104 cm-3. Pβ is seen in absorption in the cores of the globules where we measure visual extinctions of 11–16 mag. The shell and the globules have bright rims in the observed bands. In the Ks band 20 to 40% of the emission is due to fluorescent emission in the 2.12 μmH2 line similar to the tiny dense globulettes we studied earlier in a nearby region. We identify several stellar NIR excess candidates and four of them are also detected in the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm image and studied further. We find an outflow with a cavity wall bright in the 2.124 μmH2 line and at 8.0 μm in one of the globules. The outflow originates from a Class I young stellar object (YSO) embedded deep inside the globule. An Hα image suggests the YSO drives a possible parsec-scale outflow. Despite the morphology of the globule, the outflow does not seem to run inside the dusty fingers extending from the main globule body.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: protostars / ISM: individual objects: Rosette nebula / dust, extinction
Based on observations done at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO program 088.C-0630) and with Apex (program O-088.F-9318).
Table 1 and APEX CO spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A82
© ESO, 2017