1 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G. S. Vaiana, , Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
3 Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile
5 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D Santiago, Chile
6 Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
7 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
8 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
9 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, Chile
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
11 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
12 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
13 INAF – Padova Observatory, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
Received: 13 April 2017
Accepted: 23 May 2017
Aims. We present a spectroscopic study of the dynamics of the ionized and neutral gas throughout the Lagoon nebula (M 8), using VLT-FLAMES data from the Gaia-ESO Survey. The new data permit exploration of the physical connections between the nebular gas and the stellar population of the associated star cluster NGC 6530.
Methods. We characterized through spectral fitting emission lines of Hα, [N II] and [S II] doublets, [O III], and absorption lines of sodium D doublet, using data from the FLAMES-Giraffe and UVES spectrographs, on more than 1000 sightlines toward the entire face of the Lagoon nebula. Gas temperatures are derived from line-width comparisons, densities from the [S II] doublet ratio, and ionization parameter from Hα/[N II] ratio. Although doubly-peaked emission profiles are rarely found, line asymmetries often imply multiple velocity components along the same line of sight. This is especially true for the sodium absorption, and for the [O III] lines.
Results. Spatial maps for density and ionization are derived, and compared to other known properties of the nebula and of its massive stars 9 Sgr, Herschel 36 and HD 165052 which are confirmed to provide most of the ionizing flux. The detailed velocity fields across the nebula show several expanding shells, related to the cluster NGC 6530, the O stars 9 Sgr and Herschel 36, and the massive protostar M 8East-IR. The origins of kinematical expansion and ionization of the NGC 6530 shell appear to be different. We are able to put constrains on the line-of-sight (relative or absolute) distances between some of these objects and the molecular cloud. The data show that the large obscuring band running through the middle of the nebula is being compressed by both sides, which might explain its enhanced density. We also find an unexplained large-scale velocity gradient across the entire nebula. At larger distances, the transition from ionized to neutral gas is studied using the sodium lines.
Key words: ISM: individual objects: Lagoon nebula / ISM: general / HII regions
Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey (program 188.B-3002).
Full Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A135
© ESO, 2017