Volume 599, March 2017
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Published online||23 February 2017|
Polarimetry at millimeter wavelengths with the NIKA camera: calibration and performance
1 Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble, France
2 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Bvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
3 Astronomy Instrumentation Group, University of Cardiff, Cardiff Wales CF10 3AT, UK
4 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France
5 Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), CNRS and Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay, France
6 Institut Néel, CNRS and Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France
7 Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 18012 Granada, Spain
8 Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 38000 Grenoble, France
9 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
10 School of Earth and Space Exploration and Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
11 University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Received: 7 September 2016
Accepted: 3 December 2016
Magnetic fields, which play a major role in a large number of astrophysical processes can be traced via observations of dust polarization. In particular, Planck low-resolution observations of dust polarization have demonstrated that Galactic filamentary structures, where star formation takes place, are associated to well organized magnetic fields. A better understanding of this process requires detailed observations of galactic dust polarization on scales of 0.01 to 0.1 pc. Such high-resolution polarization observations can be carried out at the IRAM 30 m telescope using the recently installed NIKA2 camera, which features two frequency bands at 260 and 150 GHz (respectively 1.15 and 2.05 mm), the 260 GHz band being polarization sensitive. NIKA2 so far in commissioning phase, has its focal plane filled with ~3300 detectors to cover a Field of View (FoV) of 6.5 arcmin diameter. The NIKA camera, which consisted of two arrays of 132 and 224 Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) and a FWHM (Full-Width-Half-Maximum) of 12 and 18.2 arcsec at 1.15 and 2.05 mm respectively, has been operated at the IRAM 30 m telescope from 2012 to 2015 as a test-bench for NIKA2. NIKA was equipped of a room temperature polarization system (a half wave plate (HWP) and a grid polarizer facing the NIKA cryostat window). The fast and continuous rotation of the HWP permits the quasi simultaneous reconstruction of the three Stokes parameters, I, Q, and U at 150 and 260 GHz. This paper presents the first polarization measurements with KIDs and reports the polarization performance of the NIKA camera and the pertinence of the choice of the polarization setup in the perspective of NIKA2. We describe the polarized data reduction pipeline, specifically developed for this project and how the continuous rotation of the HWP permits to shift the polarized signal far from any low frequency noise. We also present the dedicated algorithm developed to correct systematic leakage effects. We report results on compact and extended sources obtained duringthe February 2015 technical campaign. These results demonstrate a good understanding of polarization systematics and state-of-the-art performance in terms of photometry, polarization degree and polarization angle reconstruction.
Key words: ISM: magnetic fields / polarization / ISM: clouds / instrumentation: polarimeters
© ESO, 2017
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