A grid of one-dimensional low-mass star formation collapse models⋆
Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5–7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Received: 26 January 2016
Accepted: 12 October 2016
Context. Numerical simulations of star formation are becoming ever more sophisticated, incorporating new physical processes in increasingly realistic set-ups. These models are being compared to the latest observations through state-of-the-art synthetic renderings that trace the different chemical species present in the protostellar systems. The chemical evolution of the interstellar and protostellar matter is very topical, with more and more chemical databases and reaction solvers available online to the community.
Aims. The current study was developed to provide a database of relatively simple numerical simulations of protostellar collapse as a template library for observations of cores and very young protostars, and for researchers who wish to test their chemical modelling under dynamic astrophysical conditions. It was also designed to identify statistical trends that may appear when running many models of the formation of low-mass stars by varying the initial conditions.
Methods. A large set of 143 calculations of the gravitational collapse of an isolated sphere of gas with uniform temperature and a Bonnor-Ebert-like density profile was undertaken using a 1D fully implicit Lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics code. The parameter space covered initial masses from 0.2 to 8 M⊙, temperatures of 5−30 K, and radii 3000 ≤ R0 ≤ 30 000 AU.
Results. A spread due to differing initial conditions and optical depths, was found in the thermal evolutionary tracks of the runs. Within less than an order of magnitude, all first and second Larson cores had masses and radii essentially independent of the initial conditions. Radial profiles of the gas density, velocity, and temperature were found to vary much more outside of the first core than inside. The time elapsed between the formation of the first and second cores was found to strongly depend on the first core mass accretion rate, and no first core in our grid of models lived for longer than 2000 years before the onset of the second collapse.
Conclusions. The end product of a protostellar cloud collapse, the second Larson core, is at birth a canonical object with a mass and radius of about 3 MJ and 8 RJ, independent of its initial conditions. The evolution sequence which brings the gas to stellar densities can, however, proceed in a variety of scenarios, on different timescales or along different isentropes, but each story line can largely be predicted by the initial conditions. All the data from the simulations are publicly available.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: protostars / stars: low-mass / hydrodynamics / radiative transfer / gravitation
The figures and raw data for every simulation output can be found at this address: http://starformation.hpc.ku.dk/grid-of-protostars. Copies of the outputs, as well as Table C.1, are also available in the form of static electronic tables at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A116
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