Volume 594, October 2016
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||18 October 2016|
Simulating the environment around planet-hosting stars
II. Stellar winds and inner astrospheres
1 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
2 Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München, Germany
3 Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, 31400 Toulouse, France
4 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5 Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Received: 24 May 2016
Accepted: 28 July 2016
We present the results of a comprehensive numerical simulation of the environment around three exoplanet-host stars (HD 1237, HD 22049, and HD 147513). Our simulations consider one of the latest models currently used for space weather studies in the Heliosphere, with turbulent Alfvén wave dissipation as the source of coronal heating and stellar wind acceleration. Large-scale magnetic field maps, recovered with two implementations of the tomographic technique of Zeeman-Doppler imaging, serve to drive steady-state solutions in each system. This paper contains the description of the stellar wind and inner astrosphere, while the coronal structure was discussed in a previous paper. The analysis includes the magneto-hydrodynamical properties of the stellar wind, the associated mass and angular momentum loss rates, as well as the topology of the astrospheric current sheet in each system. A systematic comparison among the considered cases is performed, including two reference solar simulations covering activity minimum and maximum. For HD 1237, we investigate the interactions between the structure of the developed stellar wind, and a possible magnetosphere around the Jupiter-mass planet in this system. We find that the process of particle injection into the planetary atmosphere is dominated by the density distribution rather than the velocity profile of the stellar wind. In this context, we predict a maximum exoplanetary radio emission of 12 mJy at 40 MHz in this system, assuming the crossing of a high-density streamer during periastron passage. Furthermore, in combination with the analysis performed in the first paper of this study, we obtain for the first time a fully simulated mass loss-activity relation. This relation is compared and discussed in the context of the previously proposed observational counterpart, derived from astrospheric detections. Finally, we provide a characterisation of the global 3D properties of the stellar wind of these systems, at the inner edges of their habitable zones.
Key words: stars: winds, outflows / stars: mass-loss / stars: magnetic field / stars: late-type / magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
© ESO, 2016
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