Volume 592, August 2016
|Number of page(s)||36|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||12 August 2016|
The (w)hole survey: An unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs⋆
1 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822, USA
3 European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA), PO Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 Kavli institute, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, PR China
Received: 5 January 2016
Accepted: 23 March 2016
Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, i.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen candidates, selected by their spectral energy distribution (SED), have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased toward the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star-forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 young stellar objects. Using color criteria, we selected a sample of ~150 candidates and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid- and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC-3D disk models with a limited number of parameters: disk mass, inner disk mass, scale height and flaring, and disk cavity radius, where the latter is the main parameter of interest. About 72% of our targets possibly have dust cavities based on the SED. The derived cavity sizes are consistent with imaging/modeling results in the literature, where available. Trends are found with Ldisk over L∗ ratio and stellar mass and a possible connection with exoplanet orbital radii. A comparison with a previous study where color observables are used reveals large overlap between their category of planet-forming disks and our transition disks with cavities. A large number of the new transition disk candidates are suitable for follow-up observations with ALMA.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / planets and satellites: formation / planet-disk interactions
Full Tables 4, 5, A.1−A.3, C.1, and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A126
© ESO, 2016
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