Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks: Emission from large grains
Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Theoretische Physik und
2 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
3 CEA UMR AIM Irfu, SAP, CEA-CNRS-Univ. Paris Diderot, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4 Laboratoire de radioastronomie, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École normale supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
5 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
6 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
Received: 27 May 2015
Accepted: 15 March 2016
Aims. Dust grains with sizes around (sub)mm are expected to couple only weakly to the gas motion in regions beyond 10 au of circumstellar disks. In this work, we investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of these grains on the (sub)mm appearance of magnetized protoplanetary disks.
Methods. We perform non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stratified disk simulations, including particles of different sizes (50 μm to 1 cm), using a Lagrangian particle solver. Subsequently, we calculate the spatial dust temperature distribution, including the dynamically coupled submicron-sized dust grains, and derive ideal continuum re-emission maps of the disk through radiative transfer simulations. Finally, we investigate the feasibility of observing specific structures in the thermal re-emission maps with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).
Results. Depending on the level of turbulence, the radial pressure gradient of the gas, and the grain size, particles settle to the midplane and/or drift radially inward. The pressure bump close to the outer edge of the dead-zone leads to particle-trapping in ring structures. More specifically, vortices in the disk concentrate the dust and create an inhomogeneous distribution of solid material in the azimuthal direction. The large-scale disk perturbations are preserved in the (sub)mm re-emission maps. The observable structures are very similar to those expected from planet-disk interaction. Additionally, the larger dust particles increase the brightness contrast between the gap and ring structures. We find that rings, gaps, and the dust accumulation in the vortex could be traced with ALMA down to a scale of a few astronomical units in circumstellar disks located in nearby star-forming regions. Finally, we present a brief comparison of these structures with those recently found with ALMA in the young circumstellar disks of HL Tau and Oph IRS 48.
Key words: submillimeter: planetary systems / magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) / turbulence / planets and satellites: formation / accretion, accretion disks
© ESO, 2016