Volume 589, May 2016
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||25 April 2016|
A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model
GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université
Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité,
5 place Jules Janssen, 92190
2 IHS Inc./IHS Global Belarus, 106 Pobediteley Av., Minsk, Belarus
3 LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 61 Av. de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
Received: 20 October 2015
Accepted: 2 February 2016
By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (i.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: b = −4°, −6°, −8°, and −10°, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at l = ± 5° and l = ± 10°. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 km s-1, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, the most numerous, contribute predominantly to the X-shaped structure and present different kinematic characteristics. They display a rather symmetric velocity distribution and a smaller fraction of high-velocity stars. The stellar stream motion, which is induced by the bar changes with the star initial position, can reach more than 40 km s-1 for stars that originated in the external disk, depending on the observed direction. Otherwise it is smaller than approximately 20 km s-1. In all cases, it decreases from b = −4° to −10°. Our results may enable us to interpret the cold high-velocity peak observed in the APOGEE commissioning data, as well as the excess of high-velocity stars in the near and far arms of the X-shaped structure at l = 0° and b = −6°. When compared with real data, the kinematic picture becomes more complex due to the possible presence in the observed samples of classical bulge and/or thick disk stars. Overall, our results point to the existence of complex patterns and structures in the bulge velocity fields, which are generated by the bar. This suggests that caution should be used when interpreting the bulge kinematics: the presence of substructures, peaks and clumps in the velocity fields is not necessarily a sign of past accretion events.
Key words: methods: numerical / Galaxy: bulge / Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics / Galaxy: structure
© ESO, 2016
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