Volume 588, April 2016
|Number of page(s)||13|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||09 March 2016|
The SPHERE view of the planet-forming disk around HD 100546⋆
1 Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
2 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
3 Earths in Other Solar Systems Team, NASA Nexus for Exoplanet System Science
4 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
5 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Didierot, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
6 Sterrewacht Leiden, PO Box 9513, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2300RA Leiden, The Netherlands
7 CNRS/CRAL/Observatoire de Lyon/Université de Lyon 1/École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 69342 Lyon, France
8 Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
9 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG, UMR 5274), 38000 Grenoble, France
10 CNRS, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG, UMR 5274), 38000 Grenoble, France
11 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Nice Cedex 4, France
12 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
13 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
14 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
15 UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU France, and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36- D Santiago, Chile
16 Università degli Studi di Padova, dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, vicolo dell’osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
17 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM – Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
18 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, 19001 Casilla Vitacura, Santiago 19, Chile
19 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
20 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Ch. des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
21 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 10 December 2015
Accepted: 19 January 2016
Context. The mechanisms governing planet formation are not fully understood. A new era of high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary disks has recently started, thanks to new instruments such as SPHERE, GPI, and ALMA. The planet formation process can now be directly studied by imaging both planetary companions embedded in disks and their effect on disk morphology.
Aims. We image disk features that could be potential signs of planet-disk interaction with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. Two companion candidates have been claimed in the disk around the young Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546. Thus, this object serves as an excellent target for our investigation of the natal environment of giant planets.
Methods. We exploit the power of extreme adaptive optics operating in conjunction with the new high-contrast imager SPHERE to image HD 100546 in scattered light. We obtained the first polarized light observations of this source in the visible (with resolution as fine as 2 AU) and new H and K band total intensity images that we analyzed with the pynpoint package.
Results. The disk shows a complex azimuthal morphology, where multiple scattering of photons most likely plays an important role. High brightness contrasts and arm-like structures are ubiquitous in the disk. A double-wing structure (partly due to angular differential imaging processing) resembles a morphology newly observed in inclined disks. Given the cavity size in the visible (11 AU), the CO emission associated to the planet candidate c might arise from within the circumstellar disk. We find an extended emission in the K band at the expected location of b. The surrounding large-scale region is the brightest in scattered light. There is no sign of any disk gap associated to b.
Key words: techniques: polarimetric / planet-disk interactions / circumstellar matter
© ESO, 2016
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