Volume 587, March 2016
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||07 March 2016|
Dust grains from the heart of supernovae
1 INAF−Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
2 INAF−Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy
3 INAF/IASF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
Received: 23 September 2015
Accepted: 13 January 2016
Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows following the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and computing the time evolution of the mass, composition, and size distribution of the grains. We considered four well-studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN 1987A, CasA, the Crab nebula, and N49. These sources have been observed with both Spitzer and Herschel, and the multiwavelength data allow a better assessment the mass of warm and cold dust associated with the ejecta. For each SN, we first identified the best explosion model, using the mass and metallicity of the progenitor star, the mass of 56Ni, the explosion energy, and the circumstellar medium density inferred from the data. We then ran a recently developed dust formation model to compute the properties of freshly formed dust. Starting from these input models, GRASH_Rev self-consistently follows the dynamics of the grains, considering the effects of the forward and reverse shock, and allows predicting the time evolution of the dust mass, composition, and size distribution in the shocked and unshocked regions of the ejecta. All the simulated models aagree well with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Hence the observed dust mass of 0.7−0.9 M⊙ in this source can be safely considered as indicative of the mass of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10−40% of the initial dust mass. However, the largest dust mass destruction is predicted to occur between 103 and 105 yr after the explosions. Since the oldest SN in the sample has an estimated age of 4800 yr, current observations can only provide an upper limit to the mass of SN dust that will enrich the interstellar medium, the so-called effective dust yields. We find that only between 1−8% of the currently observed mass will survive, resulting in an average SN effective dust yield of (1.55 ± 1.48) × 10-2M⊙. This agrees well with the values adopted in chemical evolution models that consider the effect of the SN reverse shock. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for dust enrichment in local galaxies and at high redshift.
Key words: supernovae: general / dust, extinction / local insterstellar matter / galaxies: high-redshift
© ESO, 2016
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