1 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
2 European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Eumetsat Allee 1, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany
3 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello, 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
4 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
5 University of Milan, Department of Physics, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan, Italy
6 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Mail Stop 72, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
7 Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
Received: 26 November 2014
Accepted: 16 May 2015
The Orion cloud complex presents a variety of star formation mechanisms and properties and is still one of the most intriguing targets for star formation studies. We present VISTA/VIRCAM near-infrared observations of the L1630N star-forming region, including the stellar clusters NGC 2068 and NGC 2071 in the Orion molecular cloud B, and discuss them in combination with Spitzer data. We select 186 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the region on the basis of multi-color criteria, confirm the YSO nature of the majority of them using published spectroscopy from the literature, and use this sample to investigate the overall star formation properties in L1630N. The K-band luminosity function of L1630N is remarkably similar to that of the Trapezium cluster, i.e., it presents a broad peak in the range 0.3–0.7 M⊙ and a fraction of substellar objects of ~20%. The fraction of YSOs still surrounded by disk/envelopes is very high (~85%) compared to other star-forming regions of similar age (1–2 Myr), but includes some uncertain corrections for diskless YSOs. Yet, a possibly high disk fraction, together with the fact that 1/3 of the cloud mass has a gas surface density above the threshold for star formation (~129 M⊙ pc-2), points toward a still ongoing star formation activity in L1630N. The star formation efficiency (SFE), star formation rate (SFR), and density of star formation of L1630N are within the ranges estimated for Galactic star-forming regions by the Spitzer core to disk and Gould’s Belt surveys. However, the SFE and SFR are lower than the average value measured in the Orion A cloud and, in particular, lower than that in the southern regions of L1630. This might suggest different star formation mechanisms within the L1630 cloud complex.
Key words: surveys / stars: pre-main sequence / open clusters and associations: individual: L1630N / stars: formation / stars: protostars / ISM: clouds
Based on observations collected at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 060.A-9285(B).
Tables A.1 and A.2 are are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A140
© ESO, 2015