Chromospheric seismology above sunspot umbrae
Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK
Received: 17 March 2015
Accepted: 26 June 2015
Context. The acoustic resonator is an important model for explaining the three-minute oscillations in the chromosphere above sunspot umbrae. The steep temperature gradients at the photosphere and transition region provide the cavity for the acoustic resonator, which allows waves to be both partially transmitted and partially reflected.
Aims. In this paper, a new method of estimating the size and temperature profile of the chromospheric cavity above a sunspot umbra is developed.
Methods. The magnetic field above umbrae is modelled numerically in 1.5D with slow magnetoacoustic wave trains travelling along magnetic fieldlines. Resonances are driven by applying the random noise of three different colours – white, pink, and brown – as small velocity perturbations to the upper convection zone. Energy escapes the resonating cavity and generates wave trains moving into the corona. Line-of-sight integration is also performed to determine the observable spectra through SDO/AIA.
Results. The numerical results show that the gradient of the coronal spectra is directly correlated with the chromosperic temperature configuration. As the chromospheric cavity size increases, the spectral gradient becomes shallower. When line-of-sight integration is performed, the resulting spectra demonstrate a broadband of excited frequencies that is correlated with the chromospheric cavity size. The broadband of excited frequencies becomes narrower as the chromospheric cavity size increases.
Conclusions. These two results provide a potentially useful diagnostic for the chromospheric temperature profile by considering coronal velocity oscillations.
Key words: Sun: chromosphere / Sun: oscillations / magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) / sunspots
© ESO, 2015