Volume 580, August 2015
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Published online||27 July 2015|
From star-forming galaxies to AGN: the global HI content from a stacking experiment⋆
1 ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
2 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
3 Centre for Astrophysics & Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 Hawthorn, Australia
4 International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009, Australia
5 ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), The university of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Received: 14 August 2014
Accepted: 11 May 2015
We study the atomic neutral hydrogen (H I) content of ~1600 galaxies up to z ~ 0.1 using stacking techniques. The observations were carried out with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) in the area of the SDSS South Galactic Cap (SSGC), where we selected a galaxy sample from the SDSS spectroscopic catalog. Multi-wavelength information is provided by SDSS, NVSS, GALEX, and WISE. We use the collected information to study H I trends with color, star-forming, and active galactic nuclei (AGN) properties. Using near-UV (NUV) −r colors, galaxies are divided into blue cloud, green valley and red sequence galaxies. As expected based on previous observations, we detect H I in green valley objects with lower amounts of H I than blue galaxies, while stacking only produces a 3σ upper limit for red galaxies with MHI< (5 ± 1.5) × 108 M⊙ and MHI/Lr< 0.02 ± 0.006 M⊙/L⊙ (averaged over four redshift bins up to z ~ 0.1). We find that the H I content is more dependent on NUV −r color, and less on ionization properties, in the sense that regardless of the presence of an optical AGN (based on optical ionization line diagnostics), green-valley galaxies always show H I, whereas red galaxies only produce an upper limit. This suggests that feedback from optical AGN is not the (main) reason for depleting large-scale gas reservoirs. Low-level radio continuum emission in our galaxies can stem either from star formation, or from AGN. We use the WISE color-color plot to separate these phenomena by dividing the sample into IR late-type and IR early-type galaxies. We find that the radio emission in IR late-type galaxies stems from enhanced star formation, and this group is detected in H I. However, IR early-type galaxies lack any sign of H I gas and star formation activity, suggesting that radio AGN are likely to be the source of radio emission in this population. Future H I surveys will allow for extending our studies to higher redshift, and for testing any possible evolution of the H I content in relation to star-forming and AGN properties up to cosmologically significant distances. Such surveys will provide enough data to test the effect of radio/optical AGN feedback on the H I content at lower, currently rather unexplored H I detection limit (MHI < 107 M⊙).
Key words: radio lines: galaxies
The final stacked spectra of the galaxies are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A43
© ESO, 2015
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